The Art of War PDF

By Sun Tzu

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This version of the Art of War is derived from earlier translations of the original text, such as Lionel Giles' translation (see Figures [1, 6]).

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Description

The Art of War, by Sun Tzu, is a book about military strategy that explains how to win wars.

If you are concealed or hidden, let your plans be dark and impenetrable as night. –Sun Tzu in the Art of War, Principle 7-16 (Chapter 7, Principle 16)

Topic: Military Strategy.
Subject: How to Win Wars.
Translator: Game of Business.
Integral Translators: Lionel Giles, Samuel B. Griffith, R.L. Wing, Ralph D. Sawyer, Chow Hou Wee, Thomas Cleary, Roger T. Ames, John Minford, Victor Mair, C. C. Low & Associates.

The Art of War by Sun Tzu


1. Sun Zi said: The art of war is of vital importance to the State; it is a matter of life and death; it is a road to safety or ruin. Hence it must be investigated.
2. The art of war, then, is governed by Five Factors; these are to be taken into account in one’s deliberations, when seeking to determine the conditions existing in the field: Moral Influence, Nature, Terrain, Leadership, and Method.—
2.1. Moral Influence causes the people to be in complete accord with their ruler; thus, the people will be prepared to live and die, unafraid of danger.
2.2. Nature signifies entities that operate without purpose, like night and day, cold and heat, times and seasons.
2.3. Terrain comprises—
2.3.1. Distances, great and small;
2.3.2. Danger and security;
2.3.3. Accessible and Constricted battlegrounds; and
2.3.4. Chances of life and death.
2.4. Leadership represents the virtues of—
2.4.1. Wisdom,
2.4.2. Sincerity,
2.4.3. Benevolence,
2.4.4. Courage, and
2.4.5. Discipline.
2.5. Method can be understood by—
2.5.1. Organizational control,
2.5.2. Leadership systems,
2.5.3. Creation and maintenance of paths by which resources may reach the army, and
2.5.4. Controlled use of resources.
3. The Five Factors governing the art of war ([2.1, 2.5]) should be familiar to all generals; they who know them will be victorious; they who do not know them will be defeated.
4. Therefore, in your deliberations, evaluate the Seven Considerations to determine the military conditions.—
4.1. Does your ruler have Moral Influence?
4.2. Does your general have ability?
4.3. Are advantages of Nature and Terrain harmonized?
4.4. Is discipline rigorously enforced?
4.5. Is your army strong?
4.6. Are officers and troops highly trained?
4.7. Are rewards and punishments consistent?
5. By means of these Seven Considerations I can forecast victory or defeat.
6. The general who listens to my suggestions and acts on them, will be victorious; keep such a general in control. The general who does not listen to my suggestions nor acts on them, will be defeated; dismiss such a general.
7. In addition to profiting from my suggestions, use any helpful circumstances beyond the ordinary rules.
8. In accordance with favorable circumstances, one should modify one’s plans.
9. Warfare is based on deception.—
9.1. The following strategies depend on your condition (Table A1):
9.1.1. If you are capable, seem incapable;
9.1.2. If you are able to advance, seem unable to do so;
9.1.3. If you are near your goal, seem far from your goal; and
9.1.4. If you are far from your goal, seem near your goal.
10. The following strategies depend on disadvantages of the enemy (Table A2):
10.1. If the enemy is greedy, hold out baits to entice them;
10.2. If the enemy is disordered, capture them;
10.3. If the enemy is irritable, irritate them; and
10.4. If the enemy is underestimating you, encourage their arrogance.
11. The following strategies depend on advantages of the enemy (Table A3):
11.1. If the enemy is poised, be prepared for them;
11.2. If the enemy is strong, avoid them;
11.3. If the enemy is relaxed, tire them; and
11.4. If the enemy is united, separate them.
12. Attack the enemy when they are unprepared; emerge where you are not expected.
13. These military strategies ([7, 12]), leading to victory, cannot be decided nor divulged prematurely.
14. Now the generals who win battles make thorough plans in their sanctuaries before the battles begin. The generals who lose battles make but partial plans. Thus do thorough plans lead to victory, and partial plans to defeat; you are more likely to be defeated if you do not plan! It is by attention to this point that I can foresee who is likely to win or lose.
Part 1 of 14


1. Sun Zi said: In the operations of war, to develop an army of many people, the following are general rules:
1.1. We will need many—
1.1.1. Chariots,
1.1.2. Wagons,
1.1.3. Soldiers, and
1.1.4. Supplies;
1.2. The internal and external expenses include—
1.2.1. Entertainment,
1.2.2. Transportation,
1.2.3. Security,
1.2.4. Maintenance, and
1.2.5. Miscellaneous.
2. Thus, the cost of developing an army of many people will reach a significant total each day.
3. When you engage in actual fighting, if victory is long in coming, then the troops’ weapons will grow dull and their ardor will be damped. If you besiege a city, you will exhaust your strength.
4. Again, if the campaign is prolonged, the resources of the State will not be equal to the strain.
5. Now, when your weapons are dulled, your ardor damped, your strength exhausted and your funds spent, neighboring warlords will spring up to use your extremity. Then no person, however wise, will be able to avert the consequences that must ensue.
6. Thus, though we have heard that haste in war causes mistakes, cleverness has never been associated with long delays.
7. There is no instance of a nation having benefited from prolonged warfare.
8. It is only one who is thoroughly acquainted with the dangers of wars who can thoroughly understand the profitable ways of waging them.
9. Skillful warriors do not conscript a soldier a second time, nor are their supplies refilled.
10. Bring your military equipment from home, and get food from the enemy. Thus the army will have food enough for its needs.
11. Poverty of the State may occur if all its supplies are transported long distances. Transporting supplies to an army over long distances causes the contributors to be impoverished and unmotivated.
12. The proximity of an army causes prices to go up, and high prices cause contributors’ wealth to be drained away.
13. When contributors’ wealth is drained away, they will be afflicted by heavy exactions.
14. With this loss of wealth and exhaustion of strength, the homes of the people will be emptied of supplies, and a significant fraction of their income will be dissipated.
15. A significant portion of the army’s total resources will amount from the following losses:
15.1. Chariots,
15.2. Horses,
15.3. Armor,
15.4. Spears,
15.5. Bows and arrows,
15.6. Shields, and
15.7. Heavy wagons.
16. Hence, a wise general makes a point of commandeering food from the enemy. One cartload of food from the enemy is equivalent to twenty of one's own; likewise, one picul of their fodder is equivalent to twenty from one's own supply.
17. For the army to win, the troops must be inspired; that there may be advantage from the army winning, they must have their rewards.
18. Therefore, when a person captures a chariot—
18.1. Reward the person who captured the chariot,
18.2. Your army’s banner should be substituted for that of the enemy,
18.3. Chariots captured from the enemy should be used in conjunction with those of your army, and
18.4. Soldiers captured from the enemy should be kindly treated and kept.
19. This is called using the enemy to augment one's own strength.
20. In war, then, let your great object be victory, not lengthy operations.
21. Thus it may be known that the general of armies is the arbiter of the people’s fates, and the person on whom it depends whether the army shall be in peace or in peril.
Part 2 of 14


1. Sun Zi said: In the practical art of war, the best strategy of all is to remain intact rather than allowing damage. This applies to—
1.1. Nations,
1.2. Divisions,
1.3. Battalions,
1.4. Companies, and
1.5. Squads.
2. Hence, to fight and win in all your battles is not Supreme Excellence; Supreme Excellence consists of achieving victory without battling.
3. Thus, the following are the forms of generalship:
3.1. Best is to affect the enemy’s plans,
3.2. Second best is to prevent enemy alliances,
3.3. Third is to attack the enemy’s army, and
3.4. Worst is to besiege a fortified city.—
3.4.1. The rule is not to besiege a fortified city, if it can be avoided.
3.4.2. Preparing to besiege fortified cities will take much time, and building ramps will take much more time.
3.4.3. If generals, unable to control their irritations, launch their troops to the assault like swarming ants, many of their troops will be exhausted, and the city will not be conquered. Such are the disastrous effects of besieging a fortified city.
4. Therefore, skillful generals—
4.1. Subdue the enemy, without any battling;
4.2. Conquer cities, without besieging them;
4.3. Capture enemy soldiers, without lengthy campaigns; and
4.4. Contend for supremacy, with their armies intact.
5. Thus, without losing troops, skillful generals’ victories will be complete. This is the art of strategic attacks.
6. The following strategies depend on the ratio of the number of troops of your army to that of the enemy (Table A4):
6.1. If your army is ten to the enemy’s one, surround them;
6.2. If your army is five to the enemy’s one, attack them;
6.3. If your army is two to the enemy’s one, separate them;
6.4. If your army is equally balanced, you can engage the enemy;
6.5. If your army is slightly inferior in numbers, you can avoid the enemy; and
6.6. If your army is quite unequal to the enemy in every way, you can flee from the enemy.
7. Hence, though an obstinate effort may be made by a small army, in the end it will be overtaken by the larger army.
8. Now the general is the support of the army; if the support is complete at all points, the army will be strong; if the support is defective, the army will be weak.
9. Generals can bring misfortune on their armies by—
9.1. Instructing the army to advance or retreat, being ignorant of the fact that it cannot obey—hobbling the army;
9.2. Attempting to govern armies in the same way as they administer territories, being ignorant of the conditions that exist in an army—causing restlessness in the officers’ and troops’ minds; and
9.3. Hiring the officers of their armies without discrimination, through ignorance of the military principle of adaptation to circumstances—shaking the officers’ and troops’ confidence.
10. When the people in the army are restless and distrustful, trouble is sure to come from the enemy. This is simply bringing anarchy into the army, and flinging victory away.
11. Thus, we may know there are Five Predictors of Victory:
11.1. Knowing when to fight and when not to fight;
11.2. Knowing how to handle both large and small forces;
11.3. Animating armies by the same spirit throughout all their ranks;
11.4. Prepared themselves, waiting to conquer unprepared enemies; and
11.5. Being capable and not interfered with by rulers.
12. Victory lies in the knowledge of the Five Predictors of Victory.
13. Hence the saying—
13.1. “If you know the enemy and know yourself, you need not fear the result of a hundred battles;
13.2. “If you know yourself but not the enemy, for every victory won you will also suffer a defeat;
13.3. “If you know neither the enemy nor yourself, you will be defeated in every battle.”
Part 3 of 14


1. Sun Zi said: The good warriors of old first put themselves beyond the possibility of defeat, and then waited for an opportunity of defeating the enemy.
2. To secure ourselves against defeat lies in our own hands, but the opportunity to defeat the enemy is provided by the enemy themselves.
3. Thus, good warriors are able to secure themselves against defeat, but cannot make certain of defeating the enemy.
4. Hence the saying, “One may know how to win without being able to do it.”
5. Security against defeat requires defensive tactics; ability to defeat the enemy requires offensive tactics.
6. Standing on the defensive indicates insufficient strength; advancing, a superabundance of strength.
7. The generals who are skilled in defense hide in the most secret recesses of the earth; they who are skilled in offense use the least predictable tactics. Thus, not only can they protect themselves, but they can also achieve complete victory.
8. To predict victory that an average person could predict is not the acme of excellence.
9. Neither is it the acme of excellence if, after you fight and win, everyone says, “Well done!”
10. To lift a thin hair is no sign of great strength; to see the sun and moon is no sign of keen sight; to hear the noise of thunder is no sign of keen hearing.
11. What the wise call a clever warrior is one who not only wins, but excels in winning with ease.
12. Hence, the victories of clever warriors bring them neither reputation for wisdom nor credit for courage.
13. Clever warriors make no mistakes, because they use strategies that maximize the likelihood of success; they defeat their enemies, because they only fight enemies they know they can defeat.
14. Hence, skillful warriors put themselves into positions that make defeat impossible, and do not miss the opportunities for defeating the enemy.
15. Thus it is that in war the successful strategists only attack after the methods of victory have been determined, whereas they who are destined to defeat first attack and afterwards determine the methods of victory.
16. Consummate generals cultivate Moral Influence, and strictly adhere to Method; thus, it is in their power to control victory.
17. In respect of Method, we have—
17.1. Firstly, Measurement;
17.2. Secondly, Estimation of Quantity;
17.3. Thirdly, Calculation;
17.4. Fourthly, Balancing of Chances; and
17.5. Fifthly, Victory.
18. Terrain leads to Measurement; Measurement to Estimation of Quantity; Estimation of Quantity to Calculation; Calculation to Balancing of Chances; and Balancing of Chances to Victory.
19. A victorious army opposed to a defeated one, is a prepared army matched against an unprepared one.
20. The onrush of an advancing army is like the bursting of pent-up waters into a deep chasm.
Part 4 of 14


1. Sun Zi said: The control of a large army is fundamentally the same as the control of a few people; it is merely a question of dividing their numbers.
2. Operating with a large army under your instruction is no different from operating with a small one; it is merely a question of instituting banners and flags.
3. To ensure that your whole army may withstand the brunt of attacks and remain unshaken: This is affected by maneuvers direct and indirect.
4. That the impact of your army may be like a stone smashed against an egg: This is affected by the science of weaknesses and strengths.
5. In all battles, direct methods may be used for engaging the enemy, but indirect methods will be needed to secure victory.
6. Indirect tactics, efficiently applied, are inexhaustible as Nature and Terrain, unending as the flow of rivers and streams; like the sun and moon, they end but to begin anew; like the four seasons, they pass away to return once more.
7. There are not more than twelve musical notes, yet the combinations of these twelve give rise to more melodies than can ever be heard.
8. There are not more than three primary colors (yellow, red, and blue), yet in combinations they produce more hues than can ever be seen.
9. There are not more than five cardinal tastes (sour, acrid, salt, sweet, bitter), yet combinations of them yield more flavors than can ever be tasted.
10. In war, there are not more than two methods of operation—the direct and the indirect—yet these two in combinations give rise to an endless series of maneuvers.
11. The direct and indirect lead on to each other in turn. It is like moving in a circle, because you never come to an end. Who can exhaust the possibilities of their combinations?
12. The unleashing of accumulated energy enables the onrush of a gushing torrent to roll stones along its course.
13. The control of timing and accuracy enables the swoop of a bird of prey to destroy its target.
14. Therefore, good warriors will be ardent in their attacks, and precise in their timing and accuracy.
15. Their potential energy is like that of a loaded weapon; their timing and accuracy, like that of the release of the trigger.
16. Amid the turmoil and tumult of war, there may be external disorder, but no internal disorder may occur; amid confusion and chaos, the general must maintain control of the soldiers to avert defeat.
17. They who are skillful at controlling activity maintain simulated appearances (Table A5).—
17.1. If you are superbly organized, simulate disorder.—
17.1.1. Hiding order beneath the cloak of disorder is simply a question of subdivision.
17.2. If you are courageous, simulate fear.—
17.2.1. Concealing courage under a show of timidity presupposes a fund of potential energy.
17.3. If you are strong, simulate weakness.—
17.3.1. Masking strength with weakness is affected by tactical arrangements.
18. Thus, the enemy acts according to appearances of skillful warriors.
19. Entice the enemy by offering benefits they certainly want.
20. After moving the enemy with benefits, capture the enemy with groups of picked troops.
21. Clever warriors—
21.1. Look to the effect of combined energy and
21.2. Do not require too much from individuals.
22. Hence, they can—
22.1. Choose the right people and
22.2. Use combined energy.
23. When clever warriors use combined energy, their troops become like rolling logs or stones.—
23.1. They remain quiet when established, as logs and stones remain motionless on level ground.
23.2. They move when in unstable positions, as logs and stones move on slopes.
23.3. They deliberate when challenged, as logs and stones come to standstills when four-cornered.
23.4. They gain momentum with progress, as logs and stones continue to roll when round-shaped.
24. Thus, the energy developed by good troops is as the momentum of round stones rolled down high mountains; this is how clever warriors use combined energy.
Part 5 of 14


1. Sun Zi said: Whoever is first in the battlefield, and awaits the coming of the enemy, will be fresh for battle; whoever is second in the battlefield, and must hasten to battle, will arrive exhausted.
2. Therefore, clever warriors (Table A6)—
2.1. Overwhelm the enemy, instead of being overwhelmed by them;
2.2. Cause the enemy to approach of their own accord, by holding out advantages to them; and
2.3. Make it impossible for the enemy to come, by providing incentives for them to stay.
3. The following strategies depend on the enemy’s conditions (Table A7):
3.1. If the enemy is relaxing, tire them;
3.2. If the enemy is well-supplied with food, starve them out; and
3.3. If the enemy is comfortably encamped, force them to move.
4. Attack places where the enemy must hasten to defend; advance swiftly to places where you are not expected.
5. An army may make great progress without distress, if it advances through territory where there is no enemy.—
5.1. To be sure of succeeding in your attacks, only attack enemies that are unprepared.
5.2. To ensure the safety of your defense, only hold positions that cannot be attacked.
6. Hence, those generals are skillful in offense whose enemies do not know what to defend; and they are skillful in defense whose enemies do not know what to attack.
7. Through the principles of subtlety and secrecy, we learn to be invisible and inaudible; hence, we can control our fates.
8. You may advance and encounter no resistance, if you manage the enemy’s weaknesses;
9. You may retire and be safe from pursuit, if your movements are more rapid than those of the enemy.
10. If we wish to fight, the enemy can be compelled to an engagement even though they are sheltered behind high barriers and deep refuges. All we need to do is attack some other place that they will be obliged to rescue.
11. If we do not wish to fight, we can prevent the enemy from engaging us even though the lines of our encampment are merely traced out. All we need to do is throw something odd and unaccountable in their way.
12. By discovering the enemy’s arrangements and remaining hidden ourselves, we can keep our army concentrated, while groups of the enemy are divided.
13. We can form a single, united body, while groups of the enemy are split into fractions. Hence, there will be a whole against separate parts of a whole, which means we shall be many to the enemy’s few.
14. If we are able, thus, to attack an inferior force, our opponents will be defeated.
15. The spot where we intend to attack must not be made known so that the enemy will have to prepare against possible attacks at several different points; with their army distributed in many directions, the numbers we shall have to face at any given point will be proportionately few.—
15.1. If the enemy strengthens their foremost divisions, they will weaken their rear divisions.
15.2. If the enemy strengthens their rear divisions, they will weaken their foremost divisions.
15.3. If the enemy strengthens their left sides, they will weaken their right sides.
15.4. If the enemy strengthens their right sides, they will weaken their left sides.
15.5. If the enemy sends reinforcements everywhere, they will everywhere be weak.
16. Numerical weakness comes from having to prepare against possible attacks; numerical strength, from compelling the enemy to make these preparations against us.
17. If we know the place and time of battles, we can plan adequately and be ready to fight.
18. If neither place nor time be known, then the left side cannot rescue the right side, the right side equally cannot rescue the left side, the front unable to relieve the rear, or the rear to support the front. This is much more problematic if the sections of the army that have made the least progress toward their goals are far behind, and communication is ineffective.
19. If the number of your troops is less than that of the enemy, that does not guarantee the enemy advantage in the matter of victory. You can create victory.
20. If the enemy is greater in numbers, we may prevent them from engaging us by (Table A8)—
20.1. Scheming, so as to discover the enemy’s plans and the likelihood of their success;
20.2. Rousing the enemy, and learning the principle of their activity or inactivity;
20.3. Compelling the enemy to reveal themselves, so as to learn their characteristics; and
20.4. Carefully comparing the enemy’s army with our own, so you may know where strength is superabundant and where it is deficient.
21. In making tactical arrangements, the highest level you can achieve is to conceal them; by concealing your arrangements, you will be safe from—
21.1. Prying of the subtlest spies and
21.2. Plots of the wisest brains.
22. This is what average people cannot comprehend: How victory may be produced out of the enemy’s tactics.
23. All people can see the tactics whereby I win, but what none can see is the strategy out of which victory is evolved.
24. Do not repeat the tactics that have gained you one victory, but let your methods be regulated by the infinite variety of circumstances.
25. Military tactics are like water, for water in its natural course—
25.1. Runs away from high places and
25.2. Hastens downwards.
26. So in war, the way is to—
26.1. Avoid what is strong and
26.2. Strike at what is weak.
27. Soldiers achieve their victories in relation to the enemy they are facing, as water shapes its course according to the nature of the ground over which it flows.
28. As water retains no constant shape, in war there are no constant conditions.
29. They who can modify their tactics in relation to the circumstances of the enemy and thereby succeed in winning, may be called marvelous leaders.
30. Thus, change is a constant factor.—
30.1. The elements of the universe are not always equally prominent.
30.2. The four seasons make way for each other in turn.
30.3. There are short days and long.
30.4. The moon has its periods of waning and waxing.
Part 6 of 14


1. Sun Zi said: In preparation for war, generals—
1.1. Receive orders from rulers;
1.2. Gather troops and concentrate civilians; and
1.3. Blend and harmonize the different elements of troops and civilians, by enabling connections to form between them.
2. After that, comes tactical maneuvering. There is nothing more difficult than tactical maneuvering, because it consists of turning the indirect into the direct, and misfortune into gain.
3. Thus, if you started after the enemy, to reach the goal before them, take a circuitous route and entice them out of the way. One who does this shows knowledge of the use of indirect and direct strategies.
4. Maneuvering can be advantageous; it is also most dangerous.—
4.1. If you set a fully equipped army to snatch an advantage, chances are that you will be too late.
4.2. On the other hand, if you detach a swift and independent team of troops to snatch an advantage, its equipment and supplies will be sacrificed.
5. Thus, you may order your troops to prepare to attack and make forced progress without halting day or night, covering double the usual distance at a stretch, but there will be strategic tradeoffs.—
5.1. If the troops do an excessive amount to wrest an advantage, all the generals will likely fall into the enemy’s hands.—
5.1.1. All the generals will likely fall into the enemy’s hands, because the stronger people will be in front, the jaded ones will fall behind, and on this plan only a small portion of your army will reach its goal.
5.2. If the troops advance at full capacity to outmaneuver the enemy, you will lose the general of your foremost division, and only half your army will reach the goal.
5.3. If the troops advance at three-fifths capacity to outmaneuver the enemy, two-thirds of your army will reach the goal.
6. Thus, we may take it that an army is lost without—
6.1. Equipment and supplies,
6.2. Food, and
6.3. Reserves.
7. We cannot enter into alliances with neighboring armies until we are acquainted with their plans.
8. We are not fit to lead an army unless we are familiar with the features of the field: Its mountains and forests, its swamps and marshes, its difficult paths and roads.
9. To benefit from natural advantages, we must use local guides.
10. In war, practice deception and you will win.
11. Decide whether to concentrate or separate your troops, based on your circumstances.
12. If progressing, let your rapidity be that of the wind.
13. If no immediate goal, let your steadfastness be that of the forest.
14. If commandeering food from the enemy, be ferocious like fire.
15. If halted, be immovable as a mountain.
16. If concealed or hidden, let your plans be dark and impenetrable as night.
17. If fighting, overwhelm like thunder and lightning.
18. If you commandeer food from the enemy, let the food be divided among your troops; if you capture new territory, cut it up into allotments for the benefit of the army.
19. Deliberate before you make a move.
20. They will win who have learnt the use of indirect and direct strategies. Such is the art of maneuvering.
21. It is often said about the practice of leadership that—
21.1. Spoken words do not carry far enough—hence the institution of gongs and drums; and
21.2. Ordinary objects cannot be seen clearly enough—hence the institution of banners and flags.
22. Gongs and drums, banners and flags, are means whereby the ears and eyes of the troops may be focused on one particular point.
23. Thus, the troops will form a single, united body, so the brave cannot advance alone, nor the cowardly retreat alone. This is the art of handling large masses of people.
24. To effectively communicate, make much use of—
24.1. Torches and drums, if battling during the night; and
24.2. Flags and banners, if battling during the day.
25. A whole army may be robbed of its spirit; generals may be robbed of their presence of mind.
26. Soldiers’ spirits are keenest at the beginning of a military campaign; as the campaign progresses, they begin to diminish; and towards the end of the campaign, soldiers’ minds are bent only on returning home.
27. Therefore, the following are strategies to manage mood (Table A9):
27.1. If the enemy’s spirits are keen, avoid them; and
27.2. If the enemy is sluggish and inclined to return home, attack them.
28. The following are strategies to manage psychology (Table A9):
28.1. If the enemy is organized, disorganize them; and
28.2. If the enemy is calm, irritate them.
29. The following are strategies to manage strength (Table A9):
29.1. If the enemy is far from their goals, be near your goals;
29.2. If the enemy is toiling and struggling, rest; and
29.3. If the enemy lacks skills, use your skills.
30. The following are strategies to manage circumstances (Table A9):
30.1. If the enemy’s banners and flags are orderly, do not approach them; and
30.2. If the enemy is gathered in calm and confident arrays, do not attack them.
31. The following are strategies to manage military interactions (Table A10):
31.1. If the enemy is encamped on high ground, do not advance against them;
31.2. If the enemy is superior, do not oppose them;
31.3. If the enemy simulates flight, do not pursue them;
31.4. If the enemy’s temper is keen, do not attack them;
31.5. If the enemy offers benefits, do not accept their gifts;
31.6. If the enemy is returning home, do not interfere with them;
31.7. If you surround the enemy, do not close all their outlets; and
31.8. If the enemy is desperate, do not press them too hard.
32. Such are the strategies for maneuvering troops.
Part 7 of 14


1. Sun Zi said: In war, generals—
1.1. Receive orders from rulers,
1.2. Gather troops, and
1.3. Concentrate people.
2. The following are strategies for five terrains (Table A11):
2.1. In Difficult terrain, do not settle;
2.2. In Central terrain—that in which important paths intersect—join your allies;
2.3. In Dangerously Isolated terrain, do not linger;
2.4. In Constricted terrain, you must strategize; and
2.5. In Desperate terrain, you must fight.
3. Five Strategic Considerations are—
3.1. Paths to follow,
3.2. Armies to attack,
3.3. Enemies to capture,
3.4. Positions to contest, and
3.5. Orders of rulers to follow.
4. Generals who thoroughly understand the advantages that accompany variation of tactics know how to handle their troops.
5. Generals who do not understand the advantages that accompany variation of tactics may be well acquainted with the configuration of the field, yet they will not be able to benefit from their knowledge.
6. So, students of war who are unversed in the art of varying their plans, even though they are acquainted with the Five Strategic Considerations, will fail to make the best use of their people.
7. Hence, in a wise general’s plans, considerations of advantage and disadvantage will be blended (Table A12).—
7.1. If our expectation of advantage is tempered by blending considerations of advantage and disadvantage, we may succeed in accomplishing the essential part of our plans.
7.2. If we are always ready to seize an advantage when amid difficulties, we may protect ourselves from misfortune.
8. The following strategies apply to the enemy (Table A13):
8.1. If you intimidate them, they will succumb;
8.2. If you harass them, they will be kept engaged; and
8.3. If you hold out deceptive allurements, they will rush to any given point.
9. The art of war teaches us to—
9.1. Rely on our readiness to receive the enemy, not on the chance of the enemy not coming; and
9.2. Rely on the fact that we have made our position unassailable, not on the chance of the enemy not attacking.
10. The Five Dangerous Faults that may affect generals are—
10.1. Recklessness, which leads to destruction;
10.2. Cowardice, which leads to capture;
10.3. A hasty temper that can be provoked by insults;
10.4. A delicacy of honor that is sensitive to shame; and
10.5. Excessive attentiveness to their people, which exposes them to worry and trouble.
11. These Five Dangerous Faults of generals are ruinous to the conduct of war.
12. When an army is defeated and its general killed, the cause will surely be found among these Five Dangerous Faults. Let them be a subject of investigation.
Part 8 of 14


1. Sun Zi said: We come now to the question of readying the army, and observing signs of the enemy.
2. The Four Branches of Military Knowledge enable armies to conquer.—
2.1. In Mountain warfare—
2.1.1. Pass quickly over mountains, and keep in the neighborhood of valleys;
2.1.2. Observe changes, and occupy high positions; and
2.1.3. If the enemy is in high positions, do not attack them.
2.2. In River warfare—
2.2.1. After crossing a river, you should get far away from it;
2.2.2. If an invading enemy is crossing a river, let half of its force cross the river, and then attack;
2.2.3. If you are anxious to attack an invading enemy, do not attack them near rivers that they must cross;
2.2.4. Observe changes, and occupy high positions; and
2.2.5. If the enemy is in high positions, do not attack them.
2.3. For operations on Difficult Paths and Roads—
2.3.1. In crossing swamps and marshes, your sole concern should be to get over them quickly without delay; and
2.3.2. If forced to fight in a swamp or marsh, you should have lush grass near you, and have your rear to the forest.
2.4. For operations on Level Terrain—
2.4.1. Occupy positions that enable fast maneuvers; and
2.4.2. Place your right and rear in high positions, so danger may be handled by your front, and your rear is safe.
3. All armies prefer high positions to low, and bright positions to dark.
4. If you nourish your troops, and occupy positions where supplies are abundant, the army will be free from disease of every kind; this will result in victory.
5. If you come to a hilly area—
5.1. Occupy the bright side and
5.2. Place your right and rear in high positions.
6. Thus, you will at once—
6.1. Act for the benefit of your troops and
6.2. Use natural advantages of the terrain.
7. If there is rain upstream of a river that you wish to ford, causing the river to swell and foam, wait for the water to subside before trying to ford the river.
8. The Six Dangerous Configurations of Terrain should be left with all possible speed, and not approached:
8.1. Steep barriers,
8.2. Naturally deep voids,
8.3. Naturally confined places,
8.4. Natural nets,
8.5. Natural traps, and
8.6. Natural crevices.
9. While we keep away from the Six Dangerous Configurations of Terrain, we should get the enemy to approach them; while we face them, we should get the enemy to ignore them.
10. If you encounter any of the Four Ambush Configurations of Terrain, people in ambush or insidious opponents are likely lurking near them:
10.1. Dangerous paths,
10.2. Ponds covered with grass and reeds,
10.3. Marshlands, or
10.4. Forested mountains with thick undergrowth.
11. The Four Ambush Configurations of Terrain must be carefully found and examined.
12. Strategies for preliminary analysis (Tables A14.1-4).—
12.1. Terrain (Table A14.1).—
12.1.1. If the enemy is near and remains quiet, they are relying on natural strengths of their positions.
12.2. Cunning (Table A14.1).—
12.2.1. If the enemy keeps aloof and tries to provoke battle, they are anxious for you to attack.
12.3. Encampment (Table A14.1).—
12.3.1. If the enemy’s encampment is easy for you to access, they must have reasons for staying in it.
12.4. Surroundings (Table A14.1).—
12.4.1. If there is movement around you, the enemy is approaching.
12.4.2. If many obstacles of bundled grass appear along paths, the enemy wants to make us suspicious.
12.5. Animal behavior (Table A14.1).—
12.5.1. If birds suddenly rise in flight, an ambush is likely near.
12.5.2. If animals are startled, an enormous attack is near.
12.5.3. If birds gather around an area, it is vacant.
12.6. Dust (Table A14.2).—
12.6.1. If dust rises high and is concentrated, it indicates the arrival of the enemy chariots.
12.6.2. If dust rises low and over a wide area, it indicates the approach of the enemy infantry.
12.6.3. If dust branches out in different directions, it indicates that the enemy is gathering firewood.
12.6.4. If a few clusters of dust rise and settle, it indicates that the enemy is encamping.
12.7. The enemy’s messages (Table A14.2).—
12.7.1. If the enemy speaks humbly while increasing their preparations, it indicates they will soon approach.
12.7.2. If the enemy speaks ardently while driving forward as if approaching, it indicates they will soon retreat.
12.7.3. If the enemy proposes a truce without negotiating conditions, it indicates a plot.
12.7.4. If the enemy gives compliments and gifts, it indicates they wish for a truce.
12.8. Movement (Table A14.3).—
12.8.1. If the light chariots are first to take positions on the flanks, it indicates they are forming for battle.
12.8.2. If soldiers and chariots quickly take positions, it means their reinforcements have arrived.
12.8.3. If half the enemy troops are seen advancing while half retreating, it is a lure.
12.8.4. If the enemy’s banners and flags are often shifted, they are in disarray.
12.8.5. If the enemy approaches angrily and maintains their position for a long time without either advancing or retreating, the situation demands vigilant investigation.
12.9. Enemy Behavior (Table A14.4).—
12.9.1. If enemy soldiers display laziness, they are hungry and short of food.
12.9.2. If enemy soldiers who are sent to gather water begin by drinking themselves, they are suffering from thirst.
12.9.3. If the enemy sees potential advantages and does not attempt to secure them, they are exhausted.
12.9.4. If enemy soldiers clamor at night, it indicates they are afraid.
12.9.5. If enemy officers are angry, it means they are weary.
12.9.6. If the enemy kills their horses for food, they have no provisions.
12.9.7. If the enemy puts away their cooking tools, showing that they will not return to their camp, they are in a desperate situation.
12.10. Generals (Table A14.5).—
12.10.1. If an army is disorderly, its general's authority is weak.
12.10.2. If officers and troops are whispering together in small groups and speaking in subdued tones, it indicates the general has lost their trust.
12.10.3. If generals give rewards too frequently, it indicates they are out of ideas.
12.10.4. If generals give too many punishments, it indicates they are in dire distress.
12.10.5. If generals begin boastfully, and then become afraid, it shows their supreme lack of intelligence.
13. If the number of our troops is no more than that of the enemy, we can still have the advantage. To capture the enemy, we should not rely solely on our size; we should use technique with sufficient strength and continually evaluate them.
14. If you have no plans and underestimate the enemy, you are sure to be captured.
15. If troops are reprimanded before they have grown attached to you, they will not be receptive; and, unless receptive, they will be practically useless. If, when troops have become attached to you, reprimands are not used, troops will still be useless.
16. Therefore, to ensure victory, troops must be treated with humanity, and united through training.
17. If in training soldiers, instructions are habitually used, the army will be well-disciplined; if not, its discipline will be bad.
18. If instructions are consistently followed, it indicates the instructions are mutually beneficial for generals and troops.
Part 9 of 14


1. Sun Zi said: We may distinguish Six Types of Terrain (Tables A15.1,2).—
1.1. Accessible terrain is that which everyone can freely traverse. In Accessible terrain, to have advantage, be first to occupy positions that enable you to (Table A15.1)—
1.1.1. Observe changes and
1.1.2. Manage supply routes.
1.2. Entangling terrain is that which can be entered but is difficult to leave (Table A15.1).—
1.2.1. If the enemy is unprepared, you may rush forth and capture them.
1.2.2. If the enemy is prepared, and you fail to capture them, withdrawal will be difficult, and your position disadvantageous.
1.3. Equitable terrain is that which is not advantageous for anyone to occupy. In Equitable terrain, to have advantage, it will be advisable to use the following strategy (Table A15.1):
1.3.1. If the enemy offers us attractive baits, do not rush forth; and
1.3.2. Entice the enemy by retreating, and attack after half the enemy troops have been drawn out.
1.4. Constricted terrain is that which is reached through narrow gaps, and from which we can only retire by tortuous paths, so that a small number of enemy soldiers would suffice to crush a large group of our people (Table A15.2).—
1.4.1. If you occupy Constricted terrain before the enemy, let the gaps be strongly protected and await the arrival of the enemy.
1.4.2. If the enemy fully protects Constricted terrain they control before you, do not follow them.
1.4.3. If the enemy weakly protects Constricted terrain they control before you, follow them.
1.5. Key terrain is that which gives advantage to the side in control of it (Table A15.2).—
1.5.1. If you control Key terrain before the enemy, occupy positions that enable you to observe changes and manage supply routes, and there wait for the enemy to arrive.
1.5.2. If the enemy controls Key terrain before you, retreat and lure them away; do not follow them.
1.6. Distant terrain is that which is far from support (Table A15.2).—
1.6.1. If your strength is equal to that of the enemy, it is difficult to provoke enemy engagement, because moving is not advantageous.
2. Generals who have attained responsible posts must be careful to study these Six Types of Terrain.
3. An army is exposed to Six Distinct Calamities, not arising from natural causes, but from faults for which the general is responsible.—
3.1. Flight of the army results from being hurled against another ten times its size, with other conditions being equal.
3.2. Disobedience results if troops are strong and their officers are weak.
3.3. Collapse results if officers are strong and their troops are weak.
3.4. Ruin results if senior officers are angry and disobedient because the general overlooked their capabilities, and they fight resentfully.
3.5. Disorganization results from—
3.5.1. Generals who are weak and without authority;
3.5.2. Generals whose orders are not clear and distinct;
3.5.3. No fixed duties assigned to officers and troops; and
3.5.4. Groups that are formed in a slovenly, haphazard manner.
3.6. Defeat results from generals who, unable to estimate abilities, engage armies to whom theirs are inferior, open their weaknesses to others' strengths, and neglect to give their best troops the most important roles.
4. These Six Distinct Calamities are ways of courting defeat that must be carefully noted by generals who have attained responsible posts.
5. Generals’ Responsibilities for Victory are to—
5.1. Use natural advantages of terrain;
5.2. Evaluate the enemy; and
5.3. Shrewdly calculate difficulties, dangers, and distances.
6. They who know the Responsibilities for Victory, and put their knowledge into practice, will win their battles. They who do not know the Responsibilities for Victory, nor practice them, will surely lose.
7. If fighting is sure to result in victory, then you must fight even though the rulers ordered that fighting should be avoided; if fighting will not result in victory, then you must not fight even though the rulers ordered you to do so.
8. Generals are precious to their armies, if they—
8.1. Advance without coveting fame,
8.2. Retreat without fearing punishment,
8.3. Protect their people, and
8.4. Do good service for their rulers.
9. If you treat your troops with care, they will follow you through the most threatening dangers; if you regard them as your beloved children, they will support you until death.
10. However, your troops will be like spoilt children, because they will be useless for any practical purpose, if you are—
10.1. Indulgent, but unable to make your authority felt;
10.2. Kind-hearted, but unable to enforce your instructions; and
10.3. Incapable of quelling disorder.
11. If we know our people are in a condition to win, but are unaware that the enemy cannot be defeated, we have gone only halfway toward victory.
12. If we know that the enemy can be defeated, but are unaware that our people are not in a condition to win, we have gone only halfway toward victory.
13. If we know that the enemy can be defeated, and also know that our people are in a condition to win, but are unaware that the nature of the terrain makes victory impracticable, we have still gone only halfway toward victory.
14. Thus, skilled warriors always—
14.1. Choose rationally, if moving; and
14.2. Have strategies, if maneuvering.
15. Hence the saying—
15.1. “If you know the enemy and know yourself, your victory will be undoubtable;
15.2. “If you know the weather and know the terrain, your victory will be limitless.”
Part 10 of 14


1. Sun Zi said: The art of war recognizes many varieties of battleground (Tables A16.1,2).—
1.1. Dispersive battleground is when warlords are fighting in their own territory (Table A16.1).
1.2. Easy battleground is when warlords have penetrated into enemy territory, but to no great extent (Table A16.1).
1.3. Key battleground is that which gives advantage to the army in control of it (Table A16.1).
1.4. Accessible battleground is that which can be freely traversed by everyone (Table A16.1).
1.5. Central battleground is that in which important paths intersect, so it gives supremacy to the army that controls it (Table A16.1).
1.6. Serious battleground is when armies have penetrated into the heart of enemy territory, leaving several fortified cities and towns in their rears (Table A16.2).
1.7. Difficult battleground is an area that is hard to traverse, such as (Table A16.2)—
1.7.1. Forested mountains,
1.7.2. Dangerous mountain passes,
1.7.3. Swamps and marshes, and
1.7.4. Difficult paths and roads.
1.8. Constricted battleground is that reached through narrow gaps, and from which we can only retire by tortuous paths, so that a small number of enemy soldiers would suffice to defeat a large group of our people (Table A16.2).
1.9. Desperate battleground is when we can only be saved from death by fighting without delay (Table A16.2).
2. Therefore, the following strategies should generally be used by generals, depending on the battleground (Tables A16.1,2):
2.1. In Dispersive battleground, do not engage in battle (Table A16.1);
2.2. In Easy battleground, do not halt (Table A16.1);
2.3. In Key battleground, do not attack (Table A16.1);
2.4. In Accessible battleground, do not try to block the enemy’s path (Table A16.1);
2.5. In Central battleground, join your allies (Table A16.1);
2.6. In Serious battleground, gather the enemy’s resources (Table A16.2);
2.7. In Difficult battleground, keep steadily advancing (Table A16.2);
2.8. In Constricted battleground, strategize (Table A16.2); and
2.9. In Desperate battleground, fight (Table A16.2).
3. Those who were called skillful generals of old knew how to—
3.1. Drive wedges between the enemy’s front and rear,
3.2. Prevent cooperation between the enemy’s large and small divisions,
3.3. Hinder enemy troops from rescuing each other, and
3.4. Hinder enemy officers from rallying their troops.
4. When enemy troops were scattered, the skillful generals of old managed to keep them disorganized.
5. If it is to your advantage, make a forward move; if otherwise, stop still.
6. If asked how to cope with an approaching enemy that is larger and organized, I should say, “Begin by seizing something the enemy values, so they will accede to your demands.”
7. Rapidity is the essence of war; use the enemy’s unreadiness; make your way by unexpected routes; and attack unguarded spots.
8. An invading army should observe the following principles:
8.1. If you go far into enemy territory, your army must have great unity, so defenders cannot prevent your victory;
8.2. Get food from the enemy and use their resources, so your army has enough supplies and food;
8.3. Carefully study the well-being of your people, and do not overtax them;
8.4. Concentrate your energy and hoard your strength;
8.5. Keep your army continually maneuvering; and
8.6. Devise unfathomable plans.
9. If you place armies in positions with no escape, they must confront death, so officers and troops will apply maximum effort to win battles.—
9.1. If people are trapped in dangerous situations, they lose their sense of fear.
9.2. If people have no place of refuge, they will advance firmly.
9.3. If people are deep in enemy territory, they will advance cautiously.
9.4. If people have no alternative, they will confront defeat.
10. Thus, if well-trained troops are deep in enemy territory, they will motivate themselves.—
10.1. Without waiting to be instructed, troops will be vigilant.
10.2. Without waiting to be asked, troops will do your will.
10.3. Without being restricted, troops will support you.
10.4. Without being directed, troops will be reliable.
11. Prohibit the taking of omens, and do away with superstitious doubts. Then, until death itself comes, no calamity need be feared.
12. If our soldiers are not overburdened with wealth, it is not because they detest money; if they do not fear for their lives, it is not because they do not desire longevity.
13. On the day your troops are ordered out to battle, they may object. Some may be standing up expressing their opinions, and some may be sitting down letting the thoughts run through their minds, but let them be cornered, and they will display tremendous courage.
14. The skillful tactician may be likened to the type of snake, found in the Chung mountains, called Shuai Ran. Strike at its head, and you will be attacked by its tail; strike at its tail, and you will be attacked by its head; strike at its middle, and you will be attacked by head and tail both. Asked if an army can be made to imitate the Shuai Ran, I should answer, “Yes.”
15. Two people may be enemies; yet, if they are both crossing a river in the same boat and are caught by a storm, they will assist each other as one hand helps another.
16. Hence, it is insufficient to rely on tethering horses, and burying chariot wheels, for the purpose of controlling your troops.
17. The principle on which to lead an army is to establish one standard of courage that all must reach.
18. Determining how to make the best of strong and weak is a process involving proper use of terrain.
19. Thus, skillful warriors lead their armies as if they were leading a single person, so all parts must coordinate.
20. Essential Characteristics of Generals are—
20.1. Calm, if thinking;
20.2. Mysterious, if strategizing; and
20.3. Just, if maintaining order.
21. Generals must be able to withhold strategic information from their officers and troops, so secrecy is ensured.
22. By changing their arrangements and plans, generals keep others from understanding them. By shifting their campsites and taking indirect paths, generals keep others from anticipating them.
23. Skillful warriors lead armies—
23.1. Up great heights and, at the critical moment, remove the ladder that led them up;
23.2. Deep into enemy territory and then, after capturing the enemy and commandeering food, reveal their intentions; and
23.3. Like shepherds driving flocks of sheep, because they change troops' instructions without their underlying goals being understood.
24. To muster their troops and bring them into danger: This may be termed the responsibility of generals.
25. The following aspects of war must be studied:
25.1. Different measures suited to the many varieties of battleground,
25.2. Advisability of offensive or defensive tactics, and
25.3. Fundamental laws of human nature.
26. If invading enemy territory, penetrating deeply causes cohesion, whereas penetrating shallowly causes dispersion.—
26.1. Critical battleground is when you leave your territory, and lead your army through borders of enemy territory.
26.2. Easy battleground is when you penetrate shallowly into enemy territory.
26.3. Serious battleground is when you penetrate deeply into enemy territory.
26.4. Central battleground is when you are at the intersections of important paths.
26.5. Constricted battleground is when you have risky areas behind you, and narrow gaps ahead.
26.6. Desperate battleground is when you have no place of refuge.
27. Therefore, depending on the battleground, generals of an invading army should use the following strategies (Table A17):
27.1. In Dispersive battleground, inspire your people with unity of purpose;
27.2. In Easy battleground, see that there are close connections between all parts of your army;
27.3. In Key battleground, hurry forward;
27.4. In Accessible battleground, keep vigilant eyes on your defenses;
27.5. In Central battleground, consolidate your alliances;
27.6. In Serious battleground, ensure continuous supplies of food;
27.7. In Difficult battleground, keep pushing on along the path;
27.8. In Constricted battleground, block any way of retreat; and
27.9. In Desperate battleground, fight as if retreat is hopeless.—
27.9.1. It is troops’ inclination to offer stubborn resistances, if surrounded; to work hard, if they cannot help themselves; and to comply promptly, if they have fallen into danger.
28. We cannot enter into alliances with neighboring armies until we are acquainted with their plans.
29. We are not fit to lead an army unless we are familiar with the features of the field: Its mountains and forests, its swamps and marshes, its difficult paths and roads.
30. We shall be unable to benefit from natural advantages unless we use local guides.
31. Excellent generals should not ignore any of the many varieties of battleground.
32. If excellent generals attack a powerful enemy, they prevent concentrations of the enemy’s troops.
33. Excellent generals are impressive to enemies, and enemies are afraid to ally against them.
34. Hence excellent generals do not strive to ally themselves with enemies, nor do they foster the power of enemies. Instead, they accomplish their plans by keeping enemies impressed. Thus, they are able to conquer cities and win.
35. Bestow rewards without regard to norms; issue orders without regard to usual rules.
36. Direct an army as if instructing one person.
37. If instructing officers and troops to accomplish tasks, do not let them know the intentions; instruct them to gain advantages, but tell them nothing of the dangers involved.
38. If an army is placed in vital danger, it is capable of averting death, and creating victory. Therefore, if you place your army in—
38.1. Dangerous situations, it can remain safe; and
38.2. Desperate battleground, it can survive.
39. Victory in war is gained by carefully accommodating ourselves to the enemy’s purposes.
40. By concentrating our army on one position, we will reach our goal, even if we began far from it. This is referred to as skillful accomplishment.
41. Thus, if your initial military plan is established—
41.1. Close border gates,
41.2. Cancel travel permits, and
41.3. Stop the passage of emissaries from other armies.
42. Intently finalize military preparations in a safe place.
43. Anticipate the enemy by seizing something they value, and keep secret the time of your attacks.
44. Walk in the path defined by leadership, and accommodate yourself to the enemy until you can execute a decisive action.
45. Thus, at first, be coy as an unmarried person, so the enemy gives you openings. If the enemy gives you openings, you must use them.
46. After using openings, be fast as an escaping rabbit, and it will be too late for the enemy to catch you.
Part 11 of 14


1. Sun Zi said: There are Five Ways of Attacking with Fire:
1.1. First is to burn enemy soldiers,
1.2. Second is to burn enemy stockpiles,
1.3. Third is to burn enemy equipment,
1.4. Fourth is to burn enemy armories, and
1.5. Fifth is to burn paths by which resources can reach the enemy.
2. To launch an attack with fire, the following conditions must be met:
2.1. Equipment and materials for attacking with fire should always be ready;
2.2. Proper time for attacking with fire is when the weather is dry; and
2.3. Proper days for starting attacks with fire must be carefully evaluated, to ensure wind.
3. In attacking with fire, one should properly use the Seven Strategies for Attacking with Fire (Table A18):
3.1. If fire appears inside the enemy’s encampment, prepare quickly to attack;
3.2. If fire appears inside the enemy’s encampment, but the enemy soldiers remain quiet, wait patiently and do not attack;
3.3. If the effect of the fire brings practicable opportunities, quickly attack;
3.4. If the effect of the fire brings no practicable opportunities, quickly stop attacking;
3.5. If means are available for attacking with fire, begin attacking at a favorable moment—do not wait for fire to appear in the enemy’s encampment;
3.6. If you start an attack with fire, be on the side of the fire from which the wind is blowing—do not attack the side of the fire that is in the direction in which the wind is blowing; and
3.7. If wind rises and lasts during the day, it will likely fall during the night.
4. The army must know the Seven Strategies for Attacking with Fire, and vigilantly calculate the conditions for their use.
5. Thus, those who use fire to aid attacks are intelligent, and those who use water to aid attacks are powerful.
6. Using water, the enemy can be isolated, but their equipment and supplies cannot be destroyed.
7. Unhappy are the fates of those who try to win battles and secure land without cultivating the spirit of enterprise, for the result is waste of time and general stagnation.
8. Hence the saying, “Enlightened rulers lay their plans well ahead; good generals cultivate their resources.”—
8.1. Do not move unless you see an advantage.
8.2. Do not use your troops unless there is something to gain.
8.3. Do not fight unless the position is critical.
9. If it is advantageous, move; if moving is disadvantageous, stay where you are.—
9.1. No rulers should order simply out of anger, because anger may in time change to gladness, but an army that has once been destroyed can never come again into being.
9.2. No generals should enter into war simply out of resentment, because vexation may be followed by content, but time can never be returned.
10. Thus, enlightened rulers are prudent, and good generals are cautious. This is the way to keep a state secure and an army intact.
Part 12 of 14


1. Sun Zi said: Developing an army of many people and dispatching them great distances entails—
1.1. Heavy cost on the people and a drain on the army’s resources,
1.2. Daily expense amounting to a significant value,
1.3. Commotion internally and externally making people exhausted, and
1.4. Many families impeded in their productivity.
2. Opposing armies may face each other for years, striving for victory that is decided in a day.
3. Given that victory can be decided in a day, to remain ignorant of conditions simply because one grudges spending a small portion of daily expense as compensation for services, is the height of negligence.
4. Those who remain ignorant of conditions cannot—
4.1. Lead people,
4.2. Help their rulers, nor
4.3. Master victory.
5. Thus, what enables wise rulers and good generals to achieve victories beyond the reach of average people, is foreknowledge.
6. The foreknowledge that enables extraordinary achievements cannot be obtained by—
6.1. Spirits and gods;
6.2. Experience, inductively; nor
6.3. Deductive calculation.
7. Knowledge of conditions can only be obtained from investigation.
8. Hence the use of Five Kinds of Spy:
8.1. Local spies—inhabitants of the enemy’s homeland;
8.2. Inward spies—enemy officials employed by us;
8.3. Converted spies—enemy spies employed by us;
8.4. Doomed spies—traitorous spies deliberately given false information; and
8.5. Surviving spies—spies who have returned from enemy territory with information.
9. When these Five Kinds of Spy are used together, none can discover the system; it is a supreme system, and is generals’ most precious asset.
10. Thus, no relationships in the whole army are more intimate than those maintained with people who discover useful information.
11. No rewards should be more generous than those given for discovering useful information.
12. In the matter of information, the greatest secrecy should be preserved.
13. Information cannot be used beneficially without wisdom.
14. Information cannot be properly managed without benevolence and straightforwardness.
15. One cannot make certain of the truth of intelligence without subtle ingenuity.
16. Be extremely subtle, and use your people to discover information for every kind of war.
17. If a secret piece of information is prematurely revealed by people who discovered it, they must be put to death together with the people to whom the secret was told.
18. Whether the object is to capture an army, conquer a city, or assassinate an individual, it is always necessary to begin by learning about the target’s—
18.1. Commanders,
18.2. Supporting officers,
18.3. Consultants, and
18.4. Guards.
19. Our people must be commissioned to ascertain this information.
20. Enemies who have come to spy on us must be sought out, tempted with compensation, guided, and treated well. Thus, we will gain Converted spies.
21. It is through Converted spies that we can—
21.1. Know the situations of the enemy,
21.2. Acquire and use Local and Inward spies,
21.3. Use Doomed spies to mislead the enemy, and
21.4. Use Surviving spies on appointed occasions.
22. The end and aim of the Five Kinds of Spy is knowledge of conditions; this knowledge can only be derived, in the first instance, from Converted spies. Hence, it is essential that Converted spies be treated with maximum generosity.
23. In general, the rise of dynasty b is due to a person who had served under a. Likewise, the rise of dynasty c is generally due to a person who had served under b.
24. Hence, only enlightened rulers and wise generals will use the highest intelligence of the army for purposes of investigation, and thereby achieve great results.
25. Intelligence is an extraordinarily important resource, because on it depends an army’s ability to make decisions.
Part 13 of 14


A

abilities

estimate them, 10

ability

of an army to make decisions, 13

of your general, 1

to defeat the enemy, 4

to make decisions, 13

able

to advance, 1

to attack an inferior force, 6

to avert the consequences that must ensue, 2

to benefit from knowledge, 8

to conquer cities and win, 11

to secure ourselves against defeat, 4

to win, 4

to withhold strategic information from officers and troops, 11

about

the practice of leadership, 7

the target's commanders, supporting officers, consultants, and guards, 13

abundant

supplies, 9

accede

to your demands, 11

accept

the enemy's gifts, 7

access

the enemy's encampment, 9

Accessible

battleground, 1, 11

terrain, 10

accommodate

yourself to the enemy until you can execute a decisive action, 11

accommodating

ourselves to the enemy's purposes, 11

accompany

variation of tactics, 8

accomplish

plans by keeping enemies impressed, 11

tasks, 11

accomplishing

the essential part of our plans, 8

accomplishment

skillful, 11

accord

complete, 1

of the enemy, 6

accordance

with favorable circumstances, 1

according

to appearances of skillful warriors, 5

to the nature of the ground over which water flows, 6

account

in one's deliberations, 1

accumulated

energy, 5

accuracy

control, 5

of warriors, 5

achieve

complete victory, 4

great results, 13

soldiers' victories, 6

the highest level, 6

victories beyond the reach of average people, 13

victory without battling, 3

achievements

extraordinary, 13

acquainted

with neighboring armies' plans, 7, 11

with the configuration of the field, 8

with the dangers of war, 2

with the dangers of wars, 2

with the Five Strategic Considerations, 8

acquire

Local and Inward spies, 13

act

for the benefit of your troops, 9

acting

according to appearances of skillful warriors, 5

action

decisive, 11

activity

controlling, 5

of the enemy, 6

acts

according to appearances of skillful warriors, 5

on my suggestions, 1

actual

fighting, 2

adaptation

to circumstances, 3

adequately

plan, 6

adhere

to Method, 4

administer

territories, 3

advance

against the enemy, 7

alone, 7

at three-fifths capacity, 7

cautiously, 11

firmly, 11

instructing the army to, 3

people cautiously, 11

people firmly, 11

swiftly, 6

swiftly to places where you are not expected, 6

troops at full capacity to outmaneuver the enemy, 7

without coveting fame, 10

you are able to, 1

you may, 6

advances

through territory where there is no enemy, 6

advancing

army, 4

half the enemy troops are seen, 9

indicates superabundance of strength, 4

keep steadily, 11

steadily, 11

the enemy, 9

advantage

considerations, 8

do not move unless you see, 12

expectation is tempered by blending considerations of advantage and disadvantage, 8

from the army winning, 2

given to the side in control of Key terrain, 10

have in Accessible terrain, 10

in the matter of victory, 6

seize when amid difficulties, 8

snatch, 7

to have it in Equitable terrain, 10

to the army in control of Key battleground, 11

we can still have, 9

wrest, 7

your, 11

advantageous

manuevering, 7

moving, 10, 12

terrain, 10

advantages

instruct officers and troops to gain, 11

natural, 7, 10, 11

of Nature and Terrain, 1

of terrain, 10

of the enemy, 1

of the terrain, 9

potential, 9

that accompany variation of tactics, 8

the enemy sees but does not attempt to secure, 9

to the enemy, 6

advisability

of offensive or defensive tactics, 11

advisable

strategy for Equitable terrain, 10

affect

generals, 8

the enemy's plans, 3

affected

by maneuvers, 5

by tactical arrangements, 5

by the science of weaknesses and strengths, 5

afflicted

by heavy exactions, 2

afraid

generals become, 9

soldiers, 9

to ally against excellent generals, 11

after

capturing the enemy, and commandeering food, 11

crossing a river, 9

half the enemy troops have been drawn out, 10

moving the enemy with benefits, 5

preparing for war, 7

the enemy, 7

the methods of victory have been determined, 4

using openings, 11

you fight, 4

afterwards

determine the methods of victory, 4

again

into being, 12

against

an army ten times the size of your army, 10

an egg, 5

an unprepared army, 4

defeat, 4

excellent generals, 11

possible attacks, 6

separate parts of a whole, 6

the enemy, 7

us, 6

ahead

enlightened rulers lay their plans, 12

narrow gaps, 11

aid

attacks, 12

aim

of the Five Kinds of Spy is knowledge of conditions, 13

all

armies, 9

best strategy of, 3

generals, 1

must reach the standard of courage, 11

must reach the standard of courage you establish, 11

of the enemy's outlets, 7

parts must coordinate, 11

parts of your army, 11

people, 6

possible speed, 9

the generals, 7

we need to do, 6

alliances

consolidate them, 11

of enemies, 3

with neighboring armies, 7, 11

allies

join them, 8, 11

allocating

energy, 5

allotments

of new territory for the benefit of the army, 7

allowing

damage, 3

allurements

hold them out, 8

ally

against excellent generals, 11

with enemies, 11

alone

cannot advance, 7

cannot retreat, 7

the brave cannot advance nor the cowardly retreat, 7

along

paths, 9

the path, 11

aloof

the enemy keeps, 9

alternative

people have none, 11

always

be ready, 12

choose rationally if moving, and have strategies if maneuvering, 10

necessary to begin by learning about the target's commanders, supporting officers, consultants, and guards, 13

ready to seize an advantage when amid difficulties, 8

ambush

configurations of terrain, 9

is likely near, 9

people in, 9

amid

confusion and chaos, 5

difficulties, 8

the turmoil and tumult of war, 5

among

the Five Dangerous Faults, 8

your troops, 7

amount

done to wrest an advantage, 7

amounting

to a significant value, 13

analysis

strategies for, 9

anarchy

bringing it into the army, 3

anger

may in time change to gladness, 12

no rulers should order simply out of, 12

angrily

the enemy approaches, 9

angry

officers, 9, 10

animal

behavior, 9

animals

are startled, 9

animating

armies, 3

another

army, 10

hand, 11

answer

yes, 11

anticipate

the enemy by seizing something they value, 11

anticipating

generals keep others from, 11

keep others from, 11

anxious

the enemy for you to attack, 9

to attack an invading enemy, 9

any

given point, 6, 8

helpful circumstances, 1

helpful circumstances beyond the ordinary rules, 1

of the Four Ambush Configurations of Terrain, 9

of the many varieties of battleground, 11

practical purpose, 10

way of retreat, 11

anyone

for whom it is not advantageous to occupy Equitable terrain, 10

appear

in the enemy's encampment, 12

many obstacles of bundled grass along paths, 9

appearances

of skillful warriors, 5

simulated, 5

appears

inside the enemy's encampment, 12

applied

indirect tactics, 5

apply

maximum effort to win battles, 11

strategies to the enemy, 8

appointed

occasions, 13

approach

of the enemy, 6

of the enemy infantry, 9

the enemy, 7

the enemy will soon, 9

the Six Dangerous Configurations of Terrain, 9

approached

dangerous configurations of terrain, 9

approaches

angrily, 9

approaching

enemy that is larger and organized, 11

the enemy is, 9

the enemy is driving forward as if, 9

arbiter

of the people's fates, 2

ardent

in your attack, 5

ardently

speaks, 9

ardor

damped, 2

will be damped, 2

area

birds gather around, 9

hilly, 9

is vacant, 9

that is hard to traverse, 11

wide, 9

areas

behind you, 11

arising

from natural causes, 10

armies

animating, 3

enable to conquer, 9

engage them, 10

generals, 2

govern, 3

have penetrated into the heart of enemy territory, leaving several fortified cities and towns in their rears, 11

hobbling, 3

in positions with no escape, 11

intact, 3

lead as if leading a single person, 11

may face each other for years, 13

misfortune, 3

must confront death, 11

neighboring, 7, 11

officers, 3

other, 11

plans, 7, 11

prefer high positions to low, and bright positions to dark, 9

ranks, 3

rears, 11

skillful warriors lead, 11

to attack, 8

to which generals are precious, 10

you place in positions with no escape, 11

armor

loss, 2

armories

of the enemy, 12

army

ability to make decisions, 13

advance or retreat, 3

advancing, 4

advantage from winning, 2

banner, 2

benefit, 7

bringing anarchy, 3

can be made to imitate the Shuai Ran, 11

can remain safe, 11

can survive, 11

capture, 13

chariots, 2

concentrating on one position, 11

conditions, 3

continually maneuvering, 11

control by dividing its numbers, 5

defeated, 4

direct as if instructing one person, 11

discipline, 9

dispatching great distances, 13

distributed in many directions, 6

flight, 10

general, 8

goals, 6

has enough supplies and food, 11

having benefited from prolonged warfare, 2

hobbling, 3

impact, 5

in control of Key battleground, 11

intelligence, 13

invading, 11

is capable of averting death, and creating victory, 11

is defeated and its general killed, 8

is disorderly, 9

is equally balanced, 3

is exposed to Six Distinct Calamities, 10

is five to the enemy's one, 3

is lost without, 7

is placed in vital danger, 11

is quite unequal to the enemy in every way, 3

is slightly inferior in numbers, 3

is ten to the enemy's one, 3

is two to the enemy's one, 3

keep concentrated, 6

keep intact, 12

large, 3, 5

larger, 3

lead, 7

led up a great height, 11

may be robbed of its spirit, 7

may make great progress, 6

must have great unity, 11

must know the Seven Strategies for Attacking with Fire, 12

must know the Seven Strategies for Attacking with Fire, and vigilantly calculate the conditions for their use, 12

no relationships in it are more intimate than those maintained with people who discover useful information, 13

numbers, 5

of many people, 2, 13

of the enemy, 3, 6

operate by instituting signs and signals, 5

paths by which resources may reach, 1

prepared, 4

preparing them, 9

prevent from being overtaken by a larger one, 3

principle on which to lead, 11

proximity, 2

readying, 9

resources, 13

rewards, 2

sections that have made the least progress, 6

see that there are close connections between all parts, 11

set to snatch an advantage, 7

shall be in peace or in peril, 2

should observe principles, 11

small, 3, 5

strong, 1

support, 3

that controls Central battleground, 11

that has once been destroyed can never come again into being, 12

the people are restless and distrustful, 3

the principle on which to lead one is to establish one standard of courage that all must reach, 11

to win, 2

total resources, 2

transporting supplies over long distances, 2

troops, 3

unprepared, 4

victorious, 4

we are not fit to lead unless we are familiar with the features of the field, 11

whole, 5

will be free from disease of every kind, 9

will be strong, 3

will be weak, 3

will be well-disciplined, 9

will have food enough for its needs, 2

will reach its goal, 7

will reach the goal, 7

you lead through borders of enemy territory, 11

around

an area, 9

you, 9

arrangements

by changing, 11

concealing, 6

of generals, 11

of the enemy, 6

tactical, 4, 5, 6

arrays

calm and confident, 7

arrival

await, 10

of the enemy, 10

of the enemy chariots, 9

arrive

exhausted, 6

the enemy, 10

arrived

reinforcements, 9

arrogance

of the enemy, 1

arrows

loss, 2

art

of handling large masses of people, 7

of maneuvering, 7

of strategic attacks, 3

of varying plans, 8

of varying your plans, 8

of war, 1, 8, 11

as

an escaping rabbit, 11

an unmarried person, 11

compensation for services, 13

if instructing one person, 11

if retreat is hopeless, 11

one hand helps another, 11

skillful accomplishment, 11

the momentum of round stones rolled down high mountains, 5

ascertain

information about the target's commanders, supporting officers, consultants, and guards, 13

asked

how to cope with an approaching enemy that is larger and organized, 11

if an army can be made to imitate the Shuai Ran, 11

without waiting to be, 11

aspects

of war, 11

assassinate

an individual, 13

assault

launch, 3

asset

generals' most precious, 13

assigned

duties to officers and troops, 10

assist

each other as one hand helps another, 11

associated

with long delays, 2

at

a favorable moment, 12

first, 11

the critical moment, 11

the intersections of important paths, 11

the Shuai Ran snake's head, 11

the Shuai Ran snake's tail, 11

attached

troops to you, 9

attack

a powerful enemy, 11

after half the enemy troops have been drawn out, 10

after letting half of an invading enemy's force cross a river, 9

after the methods of victory have been determined, 4

an inferior force, 6

an invading enemy, 9

an invading enemy near rivers that they must cross, 9

armies, 8

do not, 11, 12

enemies that are unprepared, 6

intend, 6

is near, 9

places where the enemy must hasten to defend, 6

prepare, 7

quickly, 12

quickly prepare to, 12

some other place that the enemy will be obliged to rescue, 6

the enemy, 3, 7, 9

the enemy is anxious for you to, 9

the enemy when they are unprepared, 1

the enemy's army, 3

the side of the fire that is in the direction in which the wind is blowing, 12

unguarded spots, 11

what to, 6

with fire, 12

attacked

by both the head and tail of the Shuai Ran snake, 11

by the Shuai Ran snake's head, 11

by the Shuai Ran snake's tail, 11

positions that cannot be, 6

attacking

at a favorable moment, 12

chance of the enemy, 8

stop quickly, 12

strategically, 3

with fire, 12

attacks

keep secret the time of, 11

of warriors, 5

possible, 6

prepare against, 6

strategic, 3

those who use fire to aid are intelligent, 12

with fire must be carefully evaluated, 12

withstand, 5

your, 6

attained

responsible posts, 10

attempt

to secure potential advantages, 9

attempting

to govern armies, 3

attention

to planning, 1

attentiveness

to your people, 51

attractive

baits the enemy offers, 10

augment

one's own strength, 2

your strength, 2

authority

generals without, 10

make it felt, 10

of generals, 10

of the general is weak, 9

available

means for attacking with fire, 12

average

people, 6, 13

person, 4

avert

defeat, 5

the consequences that must ensue, 2

averting

death, 11

avoid

the enemy, 1, 3, 7

what is strong, 6

avoided

besieging a fortified city, 3

fighting, 10

await

the arrival of the enemy, 10

awaits

the coming of the enemy, 6

away

from a river, 9

from high places, 6

from the Six Dangerous Configurations of Terrain, 9

lure the enemy, 10

the enemy puts cooking tools, 9

to return once more, 5

with superstitious doubts, 11

B

baits

attractive, 10

to entice the enemy, 1

balanced

equally, 3

balancing

of chances, 4

banners

are means whereby the eyes of the troops may be focused on one particular point, 7

instituting, 5

institution, 7

make much use of, 7

of the enemy are often shifted, 9

of the enemy are orderly, 7

use, 7

barriers

high, 6

steep, 9

based

on deception, 1

on your circumstances, 7

battalions

best strategy, 3

battle

defeated, 3

do not engage in, 11

fresh, 6

hasten, 6

on the day troops are ordered out to, 11

the enemy is forming, 9

the enemy tries to provoke, 9

battlefield

whoever is first, 6

whoever is second, 6

battleground

Accessible, 11

Central, 11

Constricted, 11

control, 11

Critical, 11

depending on, 11

Desperate, 11

Difficult, 11

Dispersive, 11

Easy, 11

excellent generals should not ignore any of the many varieties, 11

gives supremacy to the army in control of it, 11

in which important paths intersect, 11

Key, 11

many varieties recognized by the art of war, 11

measures suited to the many varieties, 11

reached through narrow gaps, and from which we can only retire by tortuous paths, 11

Serious, 11

strategies depending on, 11

study different measures suited to the many varieties, 11

that can be freely traversed by everyone, 11

that gives advantage to the side in control of it, 11

that is hard to traverse, 11

when armies have penetrated into the heart of enemy territory, 11

when warlords are fighting in their own territory, 11

when warlords have penetrated into enemy territory, but to no great extent, 11

when we can only be saved from death by fighting without delay, 11

battlegrounds

Accessible and Constricted, 1

evaluating, 11

battles

all, 5

before they begin, 1

generals who lose, 1

generals who win, 1

generals will win, 10

generals win, 10

know the place and time, 6

officer and troops will apply maximum effort to win, 11

officers and troops will apply maximum effort to win, 11

result, 3

to fight and win in all of them is not Supreme Excellences, 3

win, 11, 12

you need not fear the result, 3

battling

during the day, 7

during the night, 7

without, 3

be

able to withhold strategic information from officers and troops, 11

ardent, 5

careful to study the Six Types of Terrain, 10

coy as an unmarried person, 11

extremely subtle, 13

familiar to all generals, 1

fast as an escaping rabbit, 11

first to occupy positions that enable you to observe changes and manage supply routes, 10

in complete accord with ruler, 1

on the side of the fire from which the wind is blowing, 12

prepared for the enemy, 1

prepared to live and die, 1

ready, 12

ready to fight, 6

thoroughly acquainted with the dangers of wars, 2

understood by, 1

vigilant, 11

because

anger may in time change to gladness, but an army that has once been destroyed can never come again into being, 12

clever warriors excel in winning with ease, 4

generals change troops' instructions without their underlying goals being understood, 11

moving is not advantageous, 10

on intelligence depends an army's ability to make decisions, 13

one grudges spending a small portion of daily expense as compensation for services, 13

our soldiers detest money, 11

our soldiers do not desire longevity, 11

the general overlooked officers' capabilities, 10

vexation may be followed by content, but time can never be returned, 12

your troops will be useless for any practical purpose, 10

become

afraid, 9

troops attached to you, 9

before

the battles begin, 1

the enemy, 7, 10

troops have grown attached to you, 9

trying to ford a river, 9

trying to ford the river, 9

you, 10

you make a move, 7

began

far from our goal, 11

begin

anew, 5

attacking at a favorable moment, 12

battles, 1

boastfully, 9

by drinking, 9

by learning about the target's commanders, supporting officers, consultants, and guards, 13

by seizing something the enemy values, so they will accede to your demands, 11

to diminish, 7

beginning

of a military campaign, 7

behavior

of animals, 9

of the enemy, 9

strategies for preliminary analysis, 9

behind

high barriers and deep refuges, 6

sections of the army, 6

the jaded ones will fall, 7

you, 11

being

able to win, 4

an army that has once been destroyed can never come again into, 12

hurled against an army ten times the size of your army, 10

understood, 11

beloved

children, 10

beneath

the cloak of disorder, 5

beneficial

instructions for generals and troops, 9

beneficially

used information, 13

benefit

for the army, 7

from knowledge, 8

from natural advantages, 7, 11

of your troops, 9

benefited

from prolonged warfare, 2

benefits

after moving the enemy with them, 5

offering, 5

the enemy offers, 7

benevolence

virtue represented by Leadership, 1

without which information annot be properly managed, 13

bent

only on returning home, 7

besiege

a city, 2

a fortified city, 3

fortified cities, 3

besieging

a foritified city, 3

cities, 3

best

form of generalship, 3

of strong and weak, 11

strategy of all, 3

troops, 10

use of people, 8

bestow

rewards without regard to norms, 11

between

all parts of your army, 11

the enemy's front and rear, 11

the enemy's large and small divisions, 11

troops and civilians, 7

beyond

the ordinary rules, 1

the possibility of defeat, 4

the reach of average people, 13

bird

of prey, 5

birds

gather around an area, 9

suddenly rise in flight, 9

blend

the different elements of troops and civilians, 7

blended

considerations of advantage and disadvantage, 8

blending

considerations of advantage and disadvantage, 8

block

any way of retreat, 11

the enemy's path, 11

blowing

wind, 12

boastfully

generals begin, 9

boat

crossing in the same one as your enemy, 11

body

single and united, 6, 7

border

gates, 11

borders

of enemy territory, 11

both

enemies are crossing a river in the same boat, 11

the head and tail of the Shuai Ran snake, 11

bows

loss, 2

brains

wisest, 6

branches

of dust in different directions, 9

of military knowledge, 9

of military knowledge enable armies to conquer, 9

brave

cannot advance alone, 7

bright

positions, 9

side, 9

bring

clever warriors neither reputation for wisdom nor credit for courage, 4

misfortune on armies, 3

neither reputation for wisdom nor credit for courage, 4

troops into danger, 11

your military equipment from home, 2

bringing

anarchy into the army, 3

brings

no practicable opportunities, 12

practicable opportunities, 12

brunt

of attacks, 5

building

ramps, 3

bundled

grass, 9

burn

enemy armories, 12

enemy equipment, 12

enemy soldiers, 12

enemy stockpiles, 12

paths by which resources can reach the enemy, 12

burying

chariot wheels, 11

by

a storm, 11

any danger, 1

attention to planning, 1

carefully accommodating ourselves to the enemy's purposes, 11

changing arrangements and plans, 11

concentrating our army on one position, 11

content, 12

dividing its numbers, 5

fighting without delay, 11

learning, 13

Five Factors, 1

generals who have attained responsible posts, 10

good troops, 5

instituting signs and signals, 5

keeping enemies impressed, 11

leadership, 11

means of these Seven Considerations, 1

people who discovered a secret piece of information, 13

seizing something the enemy values, 11

shifting campsites and taking indirect paths, 11

the head and tail of the Shuai Ran snake, 11

the Shuai Ran snake's head, 11

the Shuai Ran snake's tail, 11

unexpected routes, 11

us, 13

which resources can reach the enemy, 12

C

calamities

are ways of courting defeat, 10

are ways of courting defeat that must be carefully noted by generals who have attained responsible posts, 10

distinct, 10

must be carefully noted by generals who have attained responsible posts, 10

to which an army is exposed, 10

calamity

need be feared, 11

calculate

difficulties, dangers, and distances, 10

the conditions for the use of the Seven Strategies for Attacking with Fire, 12

Calculation

deductive, 13

Method, 4

called

Shuai Ran, 11

skillful generals of old, 11

calm

arrays of the enemy, 7

essential characteristic of generals, 11

the enemy, 7

camp

the enemy will not return, 9

campaign

as it progresses, 7

beginning, 7

is prolonged, 2

towards the end, 7

campaigns

lengthy, 3

campsites

by shifting, 11

of generals, 11

cancel

travel permits, 11

capabilities

of officers, 10

overlooked by the general, 10

capable

generals, 3

of averting death, and creating victory, 11

you, 1

capacity

of troops, 7

three-fifths, 7

capture

an army, 13

enemies, 8

enemy soldiers, 3

led to from cowardice, 8

new territory, 7

the enemy, 1, 9, 10

the enemy with groups of picked troops, 5

captured

chariot, 2

chariots from the enemy, 2

soldiers from the enemy, 2

you are sure to be, 9

captures

a chariot, 2

capturing

the enemy, 11

cardinal

tastes, 5

cardinal tastes yield more flavors than can ever be tasted, 5

care

with which you treat your troops, 10

careful

to study the Six Types of Terrain, 10

carefully

accommodating ourselves to the enemy's purposes, 11

comparing the enemy's army with our own, 6

evaluated proper days for starting attacks with fire, 12

find and examine ambush configurations of terrain, 9

find and examine the Four Ambush Configurations of Terrain, 9

note the Six Distinct Calamities, 10

noted by generals who have attained responsible posts, 10

study the well-being of your people, 11

carry

words far enough, 7

catch

you, 11

caught

by a storm, 11

cause

contributors' wealth to be drained away, 2

the enemy to approach of their own accord, 6

will surely be found among the Five Dangerous Faults, 8

causes

cohesion, 11

dispersion, 11

natural, 10

prices to go up, 2

the contributors to be impoverished and unmotivated, 2

the people to be in complete accord with their ruler, 1

causing

a river to swell and foam, 9

restlessness in officers' and troops' minds, 3

the river to swell and foam, 9

cautious

good generals are, 12

cautiously

advance, 11

Central

battleground, 11

terrain, 8

certain

of defeating the enemy, 4

of the truth of intelligence, 13

the truth of intelligence, 13

challenged

troops, 5

chance

of the enemy not attacking, 8

of the enemy not coming, 8

chances

balancing, 4

of life and death, 1

that you will be too late to snatch an advantage, 7

change

anger to gladness, 12

is a constant factor, 6

troops instructions without underlying goals being understood, 11

changes

observe, 9, 10

changing

arrangements and plans, 11

chaos

amid, 5

characteristics

essential, 11

of generals, 11

of the enemy, 6

chariot

capture, 2

captured, 2

wheels, 11

chariots

are first to take positions on the flanks, 9

captured from the enemy, 2

loss, 2

of the enemy, 9

of which we will need many to develop an army of many people, 2

quickly take positions, 9

reinforcements have arrived, 9

children

beloved, 10

spoilt, 10

choose

rationally, 10

the right people, 5

Chung

mountains, 11

circle

moving in one, 5

circuitous

route, 7

circumstances

adaptation, 3

based on your, 7

beyond the ordinary rules, 1

favorable, 1

of the enemy, 6

regulate your methods, 6

strategies to manage, 7

cities

conquer, 3

excellent generals are able to conquer, 11

fortified, 11

preparing to besiege, 3

siege, 3

you leave in your rear, 11

city

conquer, 13

siege, 2, 3

will not be conquered, 3

civilians

concentrate, 7

connections between them, 7

elements, 7

clamor

soldiers at night, 9

clear

orders, 10

clever

warrior, 4

warriors, 4, 5, 6

cleverness

has never been associated with long delays, 2

cloak

of disorder, 5

close

all of the enemy's outlets, 7

border gates, 11

connections between all parts of your army, 11

clusters

of dust rise and settle, 9

cohesion

caused by penetrating deeply into enemy territory, 11

cold

like, 1

collapse

results if officers are strong and their troops are weak, 10

colors

primary, 5

produce more hues than can ever be seen, 5

combinations

of cardinal tastes, 5

of direct and indirect methods, 5

of musical notes, 5

of primary colors, 5

combined

energy, 5

combining

direct and indirect methods, 5

come

again into being, 12

make it impossible for the enemy to, 6

now to the question of readying the army, 9

to a hilly area, 9

to spy on us, 13

comes

from having to prepare against possible attacks, 6

until death, 11

comfortably

encamped, 6

coming

of the enemy, 6

the enemy, 8

commandeer

food from the enemy, 7

commandeering

food from the enemy, 2, 7, 11

commanders

of the target, 13

commissioned

our people to ascertain information, 13

commotion

internally and externally making people exhausted, 13

communicate

effectively, 7

communication

is ineffective, 6

companies

best strategy, 3

comparing

the enemy's army with our own, 6

compelled

the enemy to an engagement, 6

to an engagement, 6

compelling

the enemy to prepare against possible attacks, 6

the enemy to reveal themselves, 6

compensation

for services, 13

tempted with, 13

complete

accord with ruler, 1

support, 3

victories, 3

victory, 4

compliments

the enemy gives, 9

comply

promptly, 11

comprehend

how victory may be produced out of the enemy's tactics, 6

comprises

distances, danger and security, Accessible and Constricted battlegrounds, and chances of life and death, 1

conceal

tactical arrangements, 6

concealed

let your plans be dark and impenetrable as night, 7

concealing

courage under a show of timidity, 5

your arrangements, 6

concentrate

civlians, 7

people, 8

troops, 7

your energy, 11

your troops, 7

concentrated

army, 6

dust, 9

concentrating

our army on one position, 11

concentrations

of the enemy's troops, 11

concern

should be to get over swamps and marshes quickly without delay, 9

condition

on which strategies depend, 1

our people are in, 10

to win, 10

conditions

are met to launch an attack with fire, 12

being equal, 10

constant, 6

existing in the field, 1

for the use of the Seven Strategies for Attacking with Fire, 12

ignorant of, 13

knowledge of, 13

negotiating, 9

of the enemy, 6

of the military, 1

remain ignorant of, 13

that exist in an army, 3

to launch an attack with fire, 12

conduct

of war, 8

confidence

of officers and troops, 3

confident

arrays of the enemy, 7

configuration

of the field, 8

configurations

of terrain, 9

confined

places, 9

confront

death, 11

defeat, 11

confusion

amid, 5

connections

between all parts of your army, 11

enabling to form between troops and civilians, 7

conquer

a city, 13

armies enabled by branches of military knowledge, 9

cities, 3, 11

enable armies to, 9

unprepared enemies, 3

conquered

city, 3

conscript

a soldier, 2

consequences

that must ensue, 2

considerations

of advantage and disadvantage, 8

strategic, 8

to determine military conditions, 1

to forecast victory or defeat, 1

consistent

rewards and punishments, 1

consistently

followed instructions, 9

consolidate

your alliances, 11

constant

conditions, 6

factor, 6

shape, 6

Constricted

battleground, 1, 11

terrain, 8, 10

terrain occupied before the enemy, 10

consultants

of the target, 13

consummate

generals, 4

contend

for supremacy, 3

content

vexation may be followed by, 12

contest

positions, 8

continually

evaluate the enemy, 9

maneuvering, 11

continue

to roll when logs and stones round-shaped, 5

continuous

supplies of food, 11

contributors

afflicted by heavy exactions, 2

impoverished and unmotivated, 2

wealth drained away, 2

control

a large army by dividing its numbers, 5

Constricted terrain, 10

generals' irritations, 3

keep the general who listens to my suggestions and acts on them, 1

Key terrain before the enemy, 10

of a few people, 5

of a large army, 5

of Key battleground, 11

of Key terrain, 10

of the soldiers, 5

of timing and accuracy, 5

organizational, 1

our fates, 6

victory, 4

controlled

use of resources, 1

controlling

activity, 5

your troops, 11

controls

Central battleground, 11

Key terrain before you, 10

Converted

spies, 13

spies be treated with maximum generosity, 13

cooking

tools, 9

cooperation

between the enemy's large and small divisions, 11

coordinate

all parts must, 11

cope

with an approaching enemy that is larger and organized, 11

cornered

let troops be, 11

troops, 11

cost

heavy on the people, 13

of developing an army, 2

of developing an army of many people, 2

courage

concealing under a show of timidity, 5

credit, 4

displayed by troops, 11

standard that all must reach, 11

tremendous, 11

virtue represented by Leadership, 1

courageous, 5

course of a gushing torrent, 5

water, 6

courting

defeat, 10

covered

with grass and reeds, 9

covering

double the usual distance at a stretch, 7

coveting

fame, 10

cowardice

which leads to capture, 8

cowardly

cannot retreat alone, 7

coy

as an unmarried person, 11

create

victory, 6

creating

victory, 11

creation

of paths, 1

credit

for courage, 4

crevices

natural, 9

critical

battleground, 11

moment, 11

position, 12

cross

a river, 9

rivers, 9

crossing

a river, 9

a river in the same boat as the enemy, 11

swamps and marshes, 9

crush

a large group of our people, 10

cultivate

Moral Influence, 4

resources, 12

cultivating

the spirit of enterprise, 12

cunning

strategies for preliminary analysis, 9

cut

new territory into allotments for the benefit of the army, 7

D

daily

expense, 13

expense amounting to a significant value, 13

expenses as compensation for services, 13

damage

allowing, 3

damped

ardor, 2

danger

bring troops into, 11

may be handled by your front, 9

of Terrain, 1

troops have fallen into, 11

unafraid of it, 1

vital, 11

dangerous

configurations of terrain, 9

faults, 8

maneuvering, 7

mountain passes, 11

paths, 9

situations, 11

situations people are trapped in, 11

Dangerously

Isolated terrain, 8

dangers

involved, 11

involved with accomplishing tasks, 11

of wars, 2

shrewdly calculate, 10

the most threatening, 10

dark

as night, 7

positions, 9

day

battling, 7

each, 2

given that victory can be decided in, 13

in which victory can be decided, 13

in which victory is decided, 13

like, 1

wind rises and lasts during, 12

without halting, 7

your troops are ordered out to battle, 11

days

for starting attacks with fire, 12

short and long, 6

death

armies must confront, 11

army is capable of averting, 11

chances of, 1

of which the art of war is a matter, 1

saved from by fighting without delay, 11

together with the people to whom the secret was told, 13

troops will support you until, 10

until it comes, 11

deception

on which warfare is based, 1

practice, 7

deceptive

allurements, 8

decide

whether to concentrate or separate your troops, 7

decided

military strategies prematurely, 1

victory in a day, 13

decisions

make, 13

decisive

action, 11

deductive

calculation, 13

deep

in enemy territory, 11

into enemy territory, 11

refuges, 6

troops in enemy territory, 11

voids, 9

deeply

into enemy territory, 11

penetrating causes cohesion, 11

penetrating into enemy territory, 11

defeat

a large group of our people, 11

avert, 5

confront, 11

courting, 10

destined, 4

enemies, 4

forecast, 1

make impossible, 4

people confront, 11

possibility, 4

results from generals, 10

secure ourselves against, 4

security against, 4

suffer, 3

the enemy, 4

to which partial plans lead, 1

ways of courting, 10

defeated

army, 8

general, 1

generals who do not know the Five Factors governing the art of war, 1

in every battle, 3

opponents, 6

the enemy, 10

you are more likely to be if you do not plan, 1

defeating

the enemy, 4

defective

support, 3

defend, 6

the enemy must hasten to, 6

what to, 6

defenders

cannot prevent your victory, 11

defense

ensure the safety, 6

generals who are skilled, 4

skillful, 6

defenses

keep vigilant eyes on, 11

defensive

indicates insufficient strength, 4

tactics, 4, 11

deficient

strength, 6

defined

by leadership, 11

delay

fighting without, 11

we can only be saved from death by fighting without, 11

without, 9

delays

long, 2

deliberate

before you make a move, 7

when troops are challenged, 5

deliberately

given false information, 13

deliberations

of one, 1

your, 1

delicacy

of honor, 8

demands

the enemy will accede to, 11

vigilant investigation, 9

depend

on advantages of the enemy, 1

on disadvantages of the enemy, 1

on the enemy, 6

on the ratio of the number of troops of your army to that of the enemy, 3

on your condition, 1

dependent

on the battleground, if your army is invading

on the ratio of the number of troops of your army to that of the enemy, 3

depending

on the battleground, 11

depends

an army's ability to make decisions, 13

whether the army shall be in peace or in peril, 2

derived

in the first instance, from Converted spies, 13

desire

longevity, 11

desperate

battleground, 11

situation, 9

terrain, 8

the enemy is, 7

destined

to defeat, 4

destroy

target, 5

destroyed

an army once, 12

equipment and supplies of the enemy cannot be, 12

destruction

led to from recklessness, 8

detach

a swift and independent team of troops to snatch an advantage, 7

determine

the conditions existing in the field, 1

the methods of victory, 4

the military conditions, 1

determined

the methods of victory, 4

determining

how to make the best of strong and weak, 11

detest

money, 11

develop

an army, 2

developed

energy by good troops, 5

developing

an army, 2

an army of many people, 2, 13

devise

unfathomable plans, 11

die

the people will be prepared to, 1

different

directions dust branches out in, 9

elements of troops and civilians, 7

from operating with a small army, 5

measures suited to the many varieties of battleground, 11

points, 6

difficult

battleground, 11

paths and roads, 7, 9, 11

tactical maneuvering, 7

terrain, 8

terrain to leave, 10

to provoke enemy engagement, 10

withdrawal, 10

difficulties

amid, 8

shrewdly calculate, 10

diminish

the spirits of soldiers as the campaign progresses, 7

dire

distress, 9

direct

an army as if instructing one person, 11

maneuvers, 5

method, 5

methods, 5

strategies, 7

turned from the indirect, 7

directed

without being, 11

direction

in which the wind is blowing, 12

directions

dust branches out in, 9

many, 6

disadvantage

considerations, 8

disadvantageous

moving, 12

position, 10

disadvantages

of the enemy, 1

disarray

the enemy, 9

disastrous

effects of besieging a fortified city, 3

discipline

of the army will be bad, 9

rigorously enforced, 1

virtue represented by Leadership, 1

discover

information for every kind of war, 13

the enemy's plans, 6

the system, 13

useful information, 13

discovered

a secret piece of information, 13

discovering

the enemy's arrangements, 6

useful information, 13

discrimination

without, 3

disease

free from every kind, 9

of every kind, 9

dismiss

the general who does not listen to my suggestions nor acts on them, 1

disobedience

results if troops are strong and their officers are weak, 10

disobedient

officers, 10

disorder

external, 5

hide beneath the cloak, 5

incapable of quelling, 10

internal, 5

simulate, 5

disordered

the enemy is, 1

disorderly

army, 9

disorganization

results from generals who are weak and without authority, generals whose orders are not clear and distinct, no fixed duties assigned to officers and troops, and groups that are formed in a slovenly, haphazard manner, 10

disorganize

the enemy, 7

disorganized

enemy troops, 11

keep enemy troops, 11

dispatching

an army great distances, 13

dispersion

caused by penetrating shallowly into enemy territory, 11

Dispersive

battleground, 11

display

laziness, 9

tremendous courage, 11

dissipated

income, 2

distance

covering double the usual at a stretch, 7

distances

great, 13

great and small, 1

long, 2

shrewdly calculate, 10

Distant

terrain, 10

distinct

calamities, 10

orders, 10

distinguish

Six Types of Terrain, 10

distress

in which generals are, 9

without which an army may make great progress, 6

distributed

enemy army in many directions, 6

distrustful

people in the army, 3

divided

food among your troops, 7

groups of the enemy, 6

dividing

an army's numbers, 5

division

foremost, 7

divisions

best strategy, 3

drive wedges between the enemy's large and small, 11

foremost, 6

large and small, 11

of the enemy, 11

rear, 6

divulged

military strategies prematurely, 1

do

an excessive amount to wrest an advantage, 7

away with superstitious doubts, 11

good service for rulers, 10

not attack, 11, 12

not attack the side of the fire that is in the direction in which the wind is blowing, 12

not desire longevity, 11

not engage in battle, 11

not fear for your life, 11

not fight unless the position is critical, 12

not foster the power of enemies, 11

not halt, 11

not know the Five Factors governing the art of war, 1

not know what to attack, 6

not know what to defend, 6

not let officers and troops know the intentions, 11

not move unless you see an advantage, 12

not overtax your people, 11

not plan, 1

not strive to ally with enemies, 11

not try to block the enemy's path, 11

not use your troops unless there is something to gain, 12

not wait for fire to appear in the enemy's encampment, 12

not wish to fight, 6

your will, 11

does

not listen to my suggestions nor acts on them, 1

your general have ability, 1

your ruler have Moral Influence, 1

Doomed

spies, 13

double

the usual distance at a stretch, 7

doubts

do away with superstitious, 11

superstitious, 11

down

high mountains, 5

downwards

hasten, 6

drain

on the army's resources, 13

drained

contributors' wealth, 2

drawn

out half the enemy troops, 10

drinking

water, 9

drive

wedges between the enemy's front and rear, 11

driving

flocks of sheep, 11

forward as if approaching, 9

drums

are means whereby the ears of the troops may be focused on one particular point, 7

institution, 7

make much use of, 7

use, 7

dry

weather, 12

due

to a person who had served under dynasty, 13

dull

weapons, 2

dulled

weapons, 2

during

the day, 7, 12

the night, 7, 12

dust

a few clusters rise and settle, 9

branches out in different directions, 9

rises high and is concentrated, 9

rises low and over a wide area, 9

strategies for preliminary analysis, 9

duties

assigned to officers and troops, 10

fixed, 10

dynasty

rise, 13

E

each

day, 2

ears

of the troops, 7

earth

the most secret recesses, 4

ease

with which clever warriors excel in winning, 4

easy

battleground, 11

for you to access the enemy's encampment, 9

effect

of combined energy, 5

of the fire brings no practicable opportunities, 12

of the fire brings practicable opportunities, 12

effectively

communicate, 7

effects

of besieging a fortified city, 3

effort

made by a small army, 3

maximum, 11

to win battles, 11

egg

smashed against one, 5

elements

of the universe, 6

of troops and civilians, 7

emerge

where you are not expected, 1

emissaries

stop the passage from other armies, 11

employed

enemy officials by us, 13

enemy spies by us, 13

emptied

of supplies, 2

enable

armies to conquer, 9

fast maneuvers, 9

you to observe changes and manage supply routes, 10

enables

extraordinary achievements, 13

the onrush of a gushing torrent, 5

the swoop of a bird of prey to destroy its target, 5

wise rulers and good generals to achieve victories, 13

wise rulers and good generals to achieve victories beyond the reach of average people, 13

enabling

connections to form between troops and civilians, 7

encamped

comfortably, 6

the enemy on high ground, 7

encamping

the enemy is, 9

encampment

of the enemy, 12

of the enemy is easy for you to access, 9

strategies for preliminary analysis, 9

the enemy must have reasons for staying in it, 9

the lines are merely traced out, 6

encounter

any of the Four Ambush Configurations of Terrain, 9

no resistance, 6

encourage

the enemy's arrogance, 1

end

of the campaign, 7

of the Five Kinds of Spy is knowledge of conditions, 13

to which you never come, 5

endless

series of maneuvers, 5

enemies

are afraid to ally against excellent generals, 11

are both crossing a river in the same boat, 11

defeat, 4

do not foster their power, 11

do not know what to attack, 6

do not know what to defend, 6

excellent generals do not strive to ally with, 11

generals are impressive to, 11

keeping impressed, 11

people may be, 11

that are unprepared, 6

to capture, 8

unprepared, 3

who have come to spy on us must be sought out, tempted with compensation, guided, and treated well, 13

will assist each other as one hand helps another, 11

you know you can defeat, 4

enemy

accommodate yourself to until you can execute a decisive action, 11

accord, 6

activity or inactivity, 6

acts according to appearances of skillful warriors, 5

advantage in the matter of victory, 6

advantages, 1

after capturing, 11

after them you started, 7

against, 7

alliances, 3

anticipate by seizing something the value, 11

approach, 7

approaches angrily and maintains their positions for a long time, 9

approaching, 11

armories, 12

army, 3, 6

arrangements, 6

arrogance, 1

attack, 7, 9

attack them when they are unprepared, 1

attack when they are unprepared, 1

avoid, 3, 7

avoid them, 1

await their arrival, 10

banner, 2

banners and flags are often shifted, 9

banners and flags are orderly, 7

be prepared for them, 1

begin by seizing something they value, 11

behavior, 9

burn paths by which resources can reach them, 12

camp, 9

can be compelled to an engagement, 6

can be defeated, 10

can be isolated, 12

cannot be defeated, 10

capture, 9, 10

capture them, 1

capture with groups of picked troops, 5

cause to approach of their own accord, 6

chance of them not attacking, 8

chance of them not coming, 8

chariots, 2, 9

circumstances, 6

coming, 6

commandeer their food, 7

commandeering food, 7

commandeering food from them, 2

compelling them to prepare against possible attacks, 6

compelling to prepare against possible attacks, 6

compelling to reveal themselves, 6

conditions, 6

controls Constricted terrain before you, 10

controls Key terrain before you, 10

cooking tools, 9

defeat, 4

defeating, 4

disadvantages, 1

disorganize, 7

do not attack near rivers that they must cross, 9

do not attack them near rivers that they must cross, 9

do not follow, 10

do not try to block their path, 11

encampment, 12

encampment is easy for you to access, 9

engage, 3

engagement, 10

engaging, 5

entice by offering benefits they certainly want, 5

entice by retreating, 10

entice out of the way, 7

entice them, 1

entice them out of the way, 7

equal strength, 10

equipment, 12

equipment and supplies cannot be destroyed, 12

evaluate, 10

evaluate continually, 9

few, 6

learn their characteristics, 6

flee from, 3

fodder, 2

follow, 10

food, 2

force to move, 6

foremost divisions, 6

front and rear, 11

fully protects Constricted terrain they control before you, 10

gather their resources, 11

get food from them, 2

get their food and use their resources, 11

get them to approach the Six Dangerous Configurations of Terrain, 9

get them to ignore the Six Dangerous Configurations of Terrain, 9

gifts, 7

gives compliments and gifts, 9

gives you openings, 11

goals, 7

groups are divided, 6

groups are split into fractions, 6

hands, 7

harass them, 8

has no provisions, 9

homeland, 13

horses killed for food, 9

if you occupy constricted terrain before them, 10

infantry, 9

interfere with, 7

intimidate them, 8

irritate them, 1, 7

is anxious for you to attack, 9

is approaching, 9

is calm, 7

is comfortably encamped, 6

is crossing a river, 9

is desperate, 7

is disordered, 1

is encamped on high ground, 7

is encamping, 9

is exhausted, 9

is far from their goals, 7

is forming for battle, 9

is gathered in calm and confident arrays, 7

is gathering firewood, 9

is greater in numbers, 6

is greedy, 1

is in a desperate situation, 9

is in disarray, 9

is in high positions, 9

is irritable, 1

is near and remains quiet, 9

is organized, 7

is poised, 1

is prepared, 10

is relaxed, 1

is relaxing, 6

is relying on natural strengths, 9

is returning home, 7

is sheltered, 6

is sluggish and inclined to return home, 7

is strong, 1

is superior, 7

is toiling and struggling, 7

is underestimating you, 1

is united, 1

is unprepared, 1, 10

is well-supplied with food, 6

keeps aloof and tries to provoke battle, 9

kills their horses for food, 9

know, 3, 10

lacks skills, 7

large and small divisions, 11

late for them to catch you, 11

left sides, 6

lure away, 10

maintains their position for a long time, 9

manage their weaknesses, 6

manage weaknesses, 6

messages, 9

move more rapidly than them, 6

movements, 6

moving with benefits, 5

must cross rivers, 9

must hasten to defend, 6

must have reasons for staying in their encampment, 9

number of troops, 6

offers benefits, 7

offers us attractive baits, 10

officers, 11

officers are angry, 9

officials employed by us, 13

opportunities for defeating, 4

oppose, 7

outlets, 7

outmaneuver, 7

overwhelm, 6

path, 11

place they will be obliged to rescue, 6

plans, 3, 6

positions, 9

powerful, 11

press them too hard, 7

prevent from engaging us, 6

proposes a truce without negotiating conditions, 9

provides the opportunity of defeat, 4

purposes, 11

pursue, 7

puts away their cooking tools, 9

puts away their cooking tools, showing that they will not return their camp

reach the goal before them, 7

readiness to receive them, 8

rear divisions, 6

receive, 8

resources, 11

right sides, 6

rousing, 6

sees potential advantages and does not attempt to secure them, 9

sends reinforcements everywhere, 6

separate them, 1

signs of, 9

simulates flight, 7

situations, 13

soldiers, 2, 3, 9, 10, 11, 12

soldiers are facing, 6

soldiers display laziness, 9

speaks ardently while driving forward as if approaching, 9

speaks humbly while increasing their preparations, 9

spies employed by us, 13

spirits are keen, 7

stockpiles, 12

strategies that apply, 8

strengthens their foremost divisions, 6

strengthens their left sides, 6

strengthens their rear divisions, 6

strengthens their right sides, 6

subdue, 3

tactics, 6

temper is keen, 7

territory, 11, 13

territory people are deep in, 11

territory skillful warriors lead armies into, 11

that is larger and organized, 11

tire, 6

tire them, 1

to augment one's own strength, 2

to come, 6

to reach the goal before them, 7

to stay, 6

troops, 3, 9, 11

troops are seen advancing, 9

troops have been drawn out, 10

troops were scattered, 11

trouble, 3

underestimate, 9

unreadiness, 11

use their resources, 11

use their unreadiness, 11

use them to augment your strength, 2

values, 11

wait for them to arrive, 10

wants to make us suspicious, 9

way, 6

we can prevent them from engaging us, 6

we know that they can be defeated, 10

weakly protects Constricted terrain they control before you, 10

where there is none, 6

will accede to your demands, 11

will be kept engaged, 8

will everywhere be weak, 6

will have to prepare against possible attacks, 6

will not return to their camp, 9

will rush to any given point, 8

will soon approach, 9

will soon retreat, 9

will succumb, 8

will weaken their foremost divisions, 6

will weaken their left sides, 6

will weaken their rear divisions, 6

will weaken their right sides, 6

wishes for a truce, 9

you control Key terrain before, 10

you started after, 7

you surround, 7

you underestimate, 9

your army is quite unequal to them in every way, 3

energy

accumulated, 5

allocating, 5

combined, 5

concentrate, 11

developed by good troops, 5

potential, 5

enforce

your instructions, 10

enforced

discipline, 1

engage

armies, 10

in actual fighting, 2

in battle, 11

the enemy, 3

engaged

the enemy, 8

engagement

compelled the enemy, 6

of the enemy, 10

engaging

prevent the enemy, 6

prevent the enemy from, 6

the enemy, 5

us, 6

enlightened

rulers are prudent, 12

rulers lay their plans well ahead, 12

rulers will use the highest intelligence of the army for purposes of investigation, 13

enormous

attack is near, 9

enough, 7

food for the army's needs, 2

ordinary objects cannot be seen clearly, 7

supplies and food, 11

ensue

consequences, 2

ensure

continuous supplies of food, 11

that your whole army may withstand the brunt of attacks and remain unshaken, 5

the safety of your defense, 6

victory, 9

wind, 12

ensured

secrecy, 11

entails

heavy cost on the people and a drain on the army's resources, daily expense amounting to a significant value, commotion internally and externally making people exhausted, and many families impeded in their productivity, 13

Entangling

terrain, 10

enter

into alliances with neighboring armies, 7, 11

into war simply out of resentment, 12

entered

Entangling terrain, 10

enterprise

spirit, 12

entertainment

internal and external expense, 2

entice

the enemy, 1, 5

the enemy by retreating, 10

the enemy out of the way, 7

entities

that operate without purpose, 1

equal

conditions, 10

strength to that of the enemy, 10

to the strain, 2

equally

balanced, 3

prominent elemets of the univers, 6

the right side cannot rescue the left side, 6

equipment

for attack with fire should always be ready, 12

military, 2

of the enemy, 12

of the enemy cannot be destroyed, 12

will be sacrificed, 7

without which an army is lost, 7

equipped

army set to snatch an advantage, 7

Equitable

terrain, 10

escape

none, 11

you place armies in positions without, 11

escaping

rabbit, 11

essence

of war, 11

essential

characteristics of generals, 11

part of our plans, 8

that Converted spies be treated with maximum generosity, 13

establish

one standard of courage that all must reach, 11

established

initial military plan, 11

troops, 5

estimate

abilities, 10

estimation

of quantity, 4

evaluate

the enemy, 10

the enemy continually, 9

the Seven Considerations to determine the military conditions, 1

evaluated

proper days for starting attacks with fire, 12

evaluating

battlegrounds, 11

terrains, 10

every

kind of disease, 9

kind of war, 13

everyone

can freely traverse Accessible battleground, 11

can freely traverse Accessible terrain, 10

says, 4

everywhere

the enemy sends reinforcements, 6

the enemy will be weak, 6

evolved

victory is, 6

exactions

afflicting contributors, 2

examined

ambush configurations of terrain, 9

the Four Ambush Configurations of Terrain, 9

excel

in winning with ease, 4

excellence, 4

acme of it, 4

excellent

generals, 11

excessive

amount to wrest an advantage, 7

attentiveness to their people, 8

execute

a decisive action, 11

exhaust

the possibilities of combining direct and indirect methods, 5

your strength, 2

exhausted

arrive, 6

people, 13

strength, 2

the enemy is, 9

troops, 3

exhaustion

of strength, 2

exist

conditions in an army, 3

existing

in the field, 1

expectation

of advantage is tempered by blending considerations of advantage and disadvantage, 8

expected

where you are not, 6

you are not, 1, 6

expense

amounting to a significant value, 13

daily, 13

expenses

internal and external, 2

experience

inductively, 13

exposed

to Six Distinct Calamities, 10

exposes

generals to worry and trouble, 8

expressing

opinions, 11

extent

to which warlords have penetrated into enemy territory, 11

external

disorder, 5

externally

commotion making people exhausted, 13

extraordinarily

important resource, 13

extraordinary

achievements, 13

extremely

subtle, 13

extremity

your, 2

eyes

keep on your defenses, 11

of the troops, 7

F

face

each other for years, 13

numbers at any given point, 6

the Six Dangerous Configurations of Terrain, 9

facing

the enemy, 6

fact

that the army cannot obey, 3

that we have made our position unassailable, 8

factor

change, 6

factors

are to be taken into account in one's deliberations, when seeking to determine the conditions existing in the field, 1

generals who do not know them will be defeated, 1

generals who know them will be victorious, 1

governing the art of war, 1

fail

to capture the enemy, 10

to make the best use of people, 8

fall

behind, 7

into the enemy's hands, 7

wind during the night, 12

fallen

troops into danger, 11

false

information, 13

fame

advance without coveting, 10

familiar

to all generals, 1

with the features of the field, 7, 11

families

impeded in their productivity, 13

productivity, 13

far

away from a river, 9

behind, 6

enough, 7

from our goal, 11

from support, 10

from their goals, 7

from your goal, 1

into enemy territory, 11

fast

as an escaping rabbit, 11

maneuvers, 9

fates

control, 6

of the people, 2

of those who try to win battles and secure land without cultivating the spirit of enterprise, 12

faults

dangerous, 8

for which the general is responsible, 10

let them be a subject of investigation, 8

favorable

circumstances, 1

moment, 12

fear

for your life, 11

sense, 11

simulate, 5

the result of a hundred battles, 3

feared

no calamity need be, 11

fearing

punishment, 10

features

of the field, 7, 11

felt

authority, 10

ferocious

like fire, 7

few

clusters of dust rise and settle, 9

of the enemy, 6

people, 5

proportionately, 6

field

conditions in, 1

configuration, 8

difficult paths and roads, 11

features, 7, 11

mountains and forests, 11

swamps and marshes, 11

fight

after, 4

as if retreat is hopeless, 11

be ready to, 6

do not unless the position is critical, 12

enemies you know you can defeat, 4

even though the rulers ordered that fighting should be avoided, 10

in a swamp or marsh, 9

in all your battles, 3

in Desperate battleground, 11

resentfully, 10

we do not wish to, 6

we wish to, 6

when, 3

wish, 6

you must, 8

fighting

engage, 2

in your own territory, 11

is sure to result in victory, 10

overwhelm like thunder and lightning, 7

should be avoided, 10

will not result in victory, 10

without delay, 11

finalize

military preparations in a safe place, 11

fire

appears inside the enemy's encampment, 12

appears inside the enemy's encampment, but the enemy soldiers remain quiet, 12

attacking with, 12

be ferocious like it, 7

do not wait for it to appear in the enemy's encampment, 12

effect brings no practicable opportunities, 12

effect brings practicable opportunities, 12

equipment and materials for attacking with should always be ready, 12

if the conditions are met to launch an attack with, 12

in attacking with, 12

means of attacking with are available, 12

one should properly use the strategies for attacking with, 12

proper days for starting attacks with must be carefully evaluated, 12

proper time for attacking with is when the weather is dry, 12

side from which the wind is blowing, 12

side in the direction in which the wind is blowing, 12

strategies for attacking with, 12

the army must know the strategies for attacking with, 12

those who use to aid attacks are intelligent, 12

to launch an attack with, 12

ways of attacking with, 12

you start an attack with, 12

firewood

the enemy is gathering, 9

firmly

advance, 11

first

be coy as an unmarried person, 11

burn enemy soldiers, 12

determine the methods of victory, 4

good warriors put themselves beyond the possibility of defeat, 4

in the battlefield, 6

instance, 13

to occupy positions that enable you to observe changes and manage supply routes, 10

to take positions on the flanks, 9

fit

to lead an army, 7, 11

five

cardinal tastes, 5

dangerous faults, 8

factors governing the art of war, 1

kinds of spy, 13

predictors of victory, 3

strategic considerations, 8

terrains, 8

ways of attacking with fire, 12

fixed

duties assigned to officers and troops, 10

flags

are means whereby the eyes of the troops may be focused on one particular point, 7

instituting, 5

institution, 7

make much use of, 7

of the enemy are often shifted, 9

of the enemy are orderly, 7

use, 7

flanks

light chariots are first to take positions, 9

on which enemy, light chariots are first to take positions

flee

from the enemy, 3

flight

in which birds rise, 9

of the army results from being hurled against another ten times its size, 10

simulated by the enemy, 7

flinging

victory away, 3

flocks

of sheep, 11

flow

of rivers and streams, 5

flows

water, 6

foam

river, 9

focused

ears and eyes of the troops on one particular point, 7

fodder

from the enemy, 2

follow

orders of rulers, 8

paths, 8

the enemy, 10

you through the most threatening dangers, 10

followed

by content, 12

instructions consistently, 9

food

commandeer from the enemy, 7

commandeering, 11

commandeering from the enemy, 2, 7

enough, 11

enough for the army's needs, 2

ensure continuous supplies of, 11

from the enemy, 2

get from the enemy, 11

horses killed, 9

let it be divided among your troops, 7

soldiers are short of, 9

the enemy is well-supplied, 6

without which an army is lost, 7

for

the purpose of controlling your troops, 11

force

inferior, 6

of an invading enemy, 9

the enemy to move, 6

forced

progress, 7

to fight in a swamp or marsh, 9

forces

handle both large and small, 3

ford

a river, 9

the river, 9

forecast

victory or defeat, 1

foreknowledge

enables wise rulers and good generals to achieve victories beyond the reach of average people, 13

that enables extraordinary achievements cannot be obtained by spirits and gods, experience inductively, nor deductive calculation, 13

foremost

division, 7

divisions, 6

foresee

who is likely to win or lose, 1

forest

have your rear to, 9

let your steadfastness be that of it, 7

forested

mountains, 11

mountains with thick undergrowth, 9

forests

of the field, 7, 11

form

a single, united body, 6, 7

between troops and civilians, 7

formed

groups in a slovenly, haphazard manner, 10

forming

for battle, 9

forms

of generalship, 3

forth

rush, 10

fortified

cities, 3

cities and towns, 11

city, 3

forward

driving as if approaching, 9

hurry, 11

move, 11

foster

the power of enemies, 11

found

ambush configurations of terrain, 9

among the Five Dangerous Faults, 8

in the Chung mountains, 11

the cause among the Five Dangerous Faults, 8

the Four Ambush Configurations of Terrain, 9

four

ambush configurations of terrain, 9

branches of military knowledge, 9

seasons, 5, 6

four-cornered

logs and stones, 5

free

from disease of every kind, 9

freely

traverse Accessible terrain, 10

traversed by everyone, 11

frequently

generals give rewards, 9

fresh

for battle, 6

front

handle danger by, 9

in which the stronger people will be, 7

of the enemy, 11

support, 6

unable to relieve the rear, 6

full

capacity of troops, 7

fully

equipped army set to snatch an advantage, 7

protects Constricted terrain, 10

fund

of potential energy, 5

fundamental

laws of human nature, 11

funds

spent, 2

G

gain

advantages, 11

Converted spies, 13

momentum with progress, 5

something, 12

turned from misfortune, 7

gained

victory in war by carefully accommodating ourselves to the enemy's purposes, 11

you one victory, 6

gaps

ahead, 11

let them be strongly protected, 10

narrow, 10, 11

through which Constricted battleground is reached, 11

through which Constricted terrain was reached, 10

gates

close, 11

gather

birds around an area, 9

the enemy's resources, 11

troops, 7, 8

water, 9

gathered

the enemy in calm and confident arrays, 7

gathering

firewood, 9

general

authority is weak, 9

dismiss the one who does not listen to my suggestions nor acts on them, 1

has lost the trust of officers and troops, 9

have ability, 1

in it, 13

is responsible, 10

is the support of the army, 3

keep in control, 1

killed, 8

must maintain control of the soldiers, 5

of armies is the arbiter of the people's fates, 2

of your foremost division, 7

overlooked officers' capabilities, 10

plans, 8

stagnation, 12

who does not listen to my suggestions nor acts on them, 1

who listens to my suggestions and acts on them, 1

who will win, 7

wise, 2

generally

due to a person who had served under dynasty, 13

strategies used by generals, depending on the battleground, 11

generals

accomplish their plans by keeping enemies impressed, 11

advance without coveting fame, retreat without fearing punishment, protect their people, and do good service for their rulers, 10

affected by, 8

are able to conquer cities and win, 11

are cautious, 12

are impressive to enemies, 11

are in dire distress, 9

are out of ideas, 9

are precious to their armies, 10

are skillful in defense whose enemis do not know what to attack, 6

are skillful in offense whose enemies do not know what to defend, 6

armies, 3, 10

armies are inferior, 10

armies intact, 3

arrangements and plans, 11

attack a powerful enemy, 11

begin boastfully, and then become afraid, 9

best troops, 10

campsites, 11

can achieve complete victory, 4

can bring misfortune on their armies, 3

capable, 3

change troops' instructions without their underlying goals being understood, 11

consummate, 4

cultivate their resources, 12

dangerous faults, 8

do not strive to ally themselves with enemies, nor do they foster the power of enemies, 11

enemies are afraid to ally against, 11

essential characteristics, 11

excellent, 11

excessive attentiveness to their people, 8

exposed to worry and trouble, 8

foreknowledge enables them to achieve victories beyond the reach of average people, 13

foster the power of enemies, 11

generally use strategies, depending on the battleground, 11

give rewards too frequently, 9

give too many punishments, 9

good, 13

in preparation for war, 7

instructions are mutually beneficial, 9

irritations, 3

keep others from anticipating them, 11

keep others from understanding them, 11

knowledge, 8

knowledge of Responsibilities for Victory put into practice, 10

may be robbed of their presence of mind, 7

most precious asset, 13

must be able to withhold strategic information from their officer and troops, 11

none should enter into war simply out of resentment, 12

of an invading army should use strategies depending on the battleground, 11

of old, 11

officers and troops, 11

people, 10

plans, 11

power, 4

prevent concentrations of the enemy's troops, 11

protect themselves, 4

receive orders from rulers, gather troops, and concentrate people, 8

resources, 12

responsibility, 11

Responsiblities for Victory, 10

rulers, 10

sanctuaries, 1

should not ignore any of the many varieties of battleground, 11

show supreme lack of intelligence, 9

skillful, 3, 11

skillful in defense, 6

skillful in offense, 6

strategies for preliminary analysis, 9

the Five Factors governing the art of war should be familiar to all, 1

troops, 3, 8, 11

unable to control their irritations, 3

underlying goals, 11

understanding them, 11

use strategies depending on the battleground, 11

victories, 3

weaknesses, 10

who are skilled in defense, 4

who are skilled in offense, 4

who are weak and without authority, 10

who do not know the Five Factors governing the art of war will be defeated, 1

who do not know the Responsibilities for Victory, 10

who do not understand the advantages that accompany variation of tactics, 8

who have attained responsible posts, 10

who know the Five Factors governing the art of war will be victorious, 1

who know the Responsibilities for Victory, 10

who know the Responsibilities for Victory, and put their knowledge into practice, 10

who lose battles, 1

who put their knowledge into practice, 10

who thoroughly understand the advantages that accompany variation of tactics, 8

who will win battles, 10

who win battles, 1

who, unable to estimate abilities, engage armies to whom they are inferior, open their weaknesses to others' strengths, and neglect to give their best troops the most important roles, 10

whose orders are not clear and distinct, 10

will likely fall into the enemy's hands, 7

will not be able to benefit from their knowledge, 8

will use the highest intelligence of the army for purposes of investigation, 13

win battles, 10

generalship

forms, 3

generosity

maximum, 13

generous

more than rewards given for discovering useful information, 13

get

far away from a river after crossing it, 9

food from the enemy, 2, 11

over swamps and marshes quickly without delay, 9

the enemy to approach the Six Dangerous Configurations of Terrain, 9

the enemy to ignore the Six Dangerous Configurations of Terrain, 9

gifts

of the enemy, 7

the enemy gives, 9

give

rewards too frequently, 9

too many punishments, 9

your best troops the most important roles, 10

given

false information deliberately, 13

point, 6, 8

rewards for discovering useful information, 13

that victory can be decided in a day, 13

gives

advantage to the army in control of Key battleground, 11

advantage to the side in control of the terrain, 10

compliments and gifts, 9

supremacy to the army that controls Central battleground, 11

you openings, 11

gladness

anger may in time change to, 12

go

far into enemy territory, 11

goal

immediate, 7

of the army, 7

reach, 7

reach before the enemy, 7

seem far from your, 1

seem near your, 1

to reach before the enemy, 7

we began far from, 11

we will reach, 11

you are far from, 1

you are near, 1

goals

be near, 7

being understood, 11

of generals, 11

of the army, 6

of the enemy, 7

underlying, 11

gods

from whom the foreknowledge that enables extraordinary achievements cannot be obtained, 13

gone

only halfway toward victory, 10

gongs

are means whereby the ears of the troops may be focused on one particular point, 7

institution, 7

good

generals, 13

generals are cautious, 12

generals cultivate their resources, 12

service for rulers, 10

troops, 5

warriors, 4, 5

govern

armies, 3

governed

art of war by Five Factors, 1

governing

the art of war, 1

grass

covering ponds, 9

many bundles appear along paths, 9

near you, 9

great

distances, 1, 13

extent, 11

heights, 11

object, 2

progress without distress, 6

results, 13

strength, 4

unity of the army, 11

greater

in numbers, 6

greatest

secrecy should be preserved, 13

greedy

the enemy is, 1

ground

high, 7

level, 5

over which water flows, 6

group

large, 10, 11

of our people, 10, 11

groups

of picked troops, 5

of the enemy are divided, 6

of the enemy are split into fractions, 6

small, 9

that are formed in a slovenly, haphazard manner, 10

grow

dull, 2

grown

troops attached to you, 9

grudges

spending a small portion of daily expense as compensation for services, 13

guarantee

the enemy advantage in the matter of victory, 6

guards

of the target, 13

guided

enemies who have come to spy on us must be, 13

guides

local, 7

we shall be unable to benefit from natural advantages unless we use them, 11

gushing

torrent, 5

H

habitually

used instructions, 9

half

of an invading enemy's force, 9

the enemy troops are seen advancing, 9

the enemy troops are seen retreating, 9

the enemy troops have been drawn out, 10

your army will reach the goal, 7

halfway

toward, 10

toward victory, 10

halt

do not, 11

halted

be immovable as a mountain, 7

halting

without, 7

hand

helps another, 11

handle

both large and small forces, 3

your troops, 8

handled

danger by your front, 9

handling

large masses of people, 7

hands

of the enemy, 7

haphazard

manner in which groups are formed, 10

harass

the enemy, 8

hard

do not press the enemy, 7

to traverse, 11

troops work, 11

harmonize

the different elements of troops and civilians, 7

harmonized

advantages of Nature and Terrain, 1

haste

in war, 2

hasten

to battle, 6

to defend, 6

hastens

downwards, 6

hasty

temper, 8

have

ability, 1

advantage, 10

advantage in Accessible terrain, 10

food enough for the army's needs, 2

great unity, 11

Moral Influence, 1

no alternative, 11

no place of refuge, 11

strategies, 10

your rear to the forest, 9

having

to prepare against possible attacks, 6

head

of the Shuai Ran snake, 11

hearing

keen, 4

heart

of enemy territory, 11

heat

like, 1

heavy

cost on the people, 13

height

of negligence, 13

heights

skillful warriors lead armies up, 11

help

their rulers, 13

troops, 11

helpful

circumstances beyond the ordinary rules, 1

helps

another hand, 11

hidden

remaining, 6

hide

in the most secret recesses of the earth, 4

hiding

order beneath the cloak of disorder, 5

high

barriers, 6

dust rises, 9

ground, 7

mountains, 5

places, 6

positions, 9

highest

intelligence of the army, 13

level you can achieve, 6

highly

trained, 1

hilly

area, 9

hinder

enemy officers from rallying their troops, 11

enemy troops from rescuing each other, 11

hiring

officers, 3

hoard

your strength, 11

hobbling

armies, 3

the army, 3

hold

out baits to entice the enemy, 1

out deceptive allurements, 8

positions that cannot be attacked, 6

holding

out advantages to the enemy, 6

home

from which to bring your military equipment, 2

returning, 7

the enemy is returning, 7

to which the enemy is inclined to return, 7

homeland

of the enemy, 13

homes

of the people, 2

honor

delicacy, 8

that is sensitive to shame, 8

hopeless

retreat, 11

horses

it is insufficient to rely on tethering, 11

killed for food, 9

loss, 2

tethering, 11

how

clever warriors use combined energy, 5

to cope with an approaching enemy that is larger and organized, 11

to drive wedges between the enemy's front and rear, prevent cooperation between the Art of War, Index 166

enemy's large and small divisions, hinder enemy troops from rescuing each other, and hinder enemy officers from rallying their troops, 11

to handle both large and small forces, 3

to handle your troops, 8

to make the best of strong and weak, 11

to win, 4

victory can be produced out of the enemy's tactics, 6

human

nature, 11

humanity

treat troops with, 9

humbly

speaks, 9

hungry

soldiers, 9

hurled

against an army ten times the size of your army, 10

hurry

forward, 11

I

ideas

of which generals are out, 9

ignorance

of the military principle of adaptation to circumstances, 3

ignorant

of conditions, 13

of the conditions that exist in an army, 3

of the fact that the army cannot obey, 3

ignore

any of the many varieties of battleground, 11

the Six Dangerous Configurations of Terrain, 9

imitate

the Shuai Ran, 11

immediate

goal, 7

immovable

as a mountain, 7

impact

of your army, 5

impeded

in productivity, 13

impenetrable

as night, 7

importance

to the State, 1

important

paths, 11

paths intersect, 8, 11

resource, 13

roles, 10

impossible

defeat, 4

for the enemy to come, 6

impoverished

contributors, 2

impracticable

victory, 10

impressed

enemies, 11

impressive

to enemies, 11

in

a condition to win, 10

a day, 13

a desperate situation, 9

a safe place, 11

Accessible battleground, 11

Accessible terrain, 10

accordance with favorable circumstances, 1

armies rears, 11

attacking with fire, 12

battle, 11

Central battleground, 11

complete accord with ruler, 1

Constricted battleground, 11

control, 1

control of Key terrain, 10

dangerous situations, 11

defense, 6

Desperate battleground, 11

Difficult battleground, 11

Dispersive battleground, 11

Easy battleground, 11

enemy territory, 11

Equitable terrain, 10

flight, 9

general, 13

generals' sanctuaries, 1

high positions, 9

Key battleground, 11

maneuvering troops, 7

offense, 6

one's deliberations, 1

positions with no escape, 11

productivity, 13

Serious battleground, 11

the art of handling large masses of people, 7

the art of maneuvering, 7

the art of varying plans, 8

the Chung mountains, 11

the enemy's encampment, 12

the field, 1

the first instance, 13

the matter of information, 13

the path defined by leadership, 11

the same boat as your enemy, 11

the whole army, 13

time, 12

timing, 5

training soldiers, 9

vital danger, 11

war, 11

your deliberations, 1

inactivity

of the enemy, 6

inaudible

we learn to be, 6

incapable

of quelling disorder, 10

seem, 1

incentives

for the enemy to stay, 6

inclination

of troops to offer stubborn resistances, 11

inclined

to return home, 7

income

dissipated, 2

increasing

preparations, 9

independent

team of troops, 7

indicates

a plot, 9

generals are in dire distress, 9

generals are out of ideas, 9

insufficient strength, 4

soldiers are afraid, 9

that the enemy is encamping, 9

that the enemy is gathering firewood, 9

the approach of the enemy infantry, 9

the arrival of the enemy chariots, 9

the enemy is forming for battle, 9

the enemy will soon approach, 9

the enemy will soon retreat, 9

the enemy wishes for a truce, 9

the general has lost the trust of officers and troops, 9

the instructions are mutually beneficial for generals and troops, 9

indirect

maneuvers, 5

methods, 5

paths, 11

strategies, 7

tactics, 5

turn into the direct, 7

individual

assassinate, 13

individuals

from whom clever warriors do not require too much, 5

indulgent

you, 10

ineffective

communication, 6

inexhaustible

as Nature and Terrain, 5

possibilities of combining direct and indirect methods, 5

infantry

of the enemy, 9

inferior

armies, 10

force, 6

in numbers, 3

infinite

variety of circumstances, 6

influence

moral, 1

information

ascertain about the target's commanders, supporting officers, consultants, and guards, 13

cannot be properly managed without benevolence and straightforwardness, 13

cannot be used beneficially without wisdom, 13

discovered, 13

false, 13

for every kind of war, 13

in the matter of, 13

prematurely revealed by people who discovered it, 13

strategic, 11

useful, 13

with which spies returned from enemy territory, 13

ingenuity

subtle, 13

without which one cannot make certain of the truth of intelligence, 13

inhabitants

of the enemy's homeland, 13

initial

military plan is established, 11

inside

the enemy's encampment, 12

insidious

opponents, 9

inspire

your people with unity of purpose, 11

inspired

troops, 2

instance

first, 13

of an army having benefited from prolonged warfare, 2

instituting

banners and flags, 5

signs and signals, 5

institution

of banners and flags, 7

of gongs and drums, 7

instruct

officers and troops to gain advantages, 11

to gain advantages, 11

instructed

without waiting to be, 11

instructing

officers and troops to accomplish tasks, 11

one person, 11

the army to advance or retreat, 3

instruction

your, 5

instructions

are consistently followed, 9

are habitually used, 9

are mutually beneficial for generals and troops, 9

change without underlying goals being understood, 11

enforce, 10

generals change without their underlying goals being understood, 11

of troops, 11

insufficient

strength, 4

to rely on tethering horses, and burying chariot wheels, 11

insults

provoked hasty temper, 8

intact

armies, 3

army, 12

remain, 3

intelligence

generals' supreme lack, 9

is an extraordinarily important resource, 13

is an extraordinarily important resource, because on it depends an army's ability to make decisions, 13

of the army, 13

on it depends an army's ability to make decisions, 13

on it depends an army's abiliy to make decisions, 13

one cannot make certain of the truth of without subtle ingenuity, 13

one cannot make certain the truth of without subtle ingenuity, 13

using, 13

intelligent

those who use fire to aid attacks, 12

intend

to attack, 6

intentions

do not let officers and troops know, 11

reveal, 11

warriors reveal, 11

intently

finalize military prepartions in a safe place, 11

interactions

of the military, 7

strategies to manage, 7

interfere

with the enemy, 7

interfered

with by rulers, 3

internal

disorder, 5

internally

commotion making people exhausted, 13

intersect

important paths, 8, 11

intersections

of important paths, 11

intimate, 13

intimidate

the enemy, 8

into

account, 1

alliances with neighboring armies, 7, 11

being, 12

danger, 11

enemy

territory, 11

enemy territory, 11

practice, 10

the enemy's hands, 7

the heart of enemy territory, 11

war, 12

invading

army, 11

enemy, 9

enemy is crossing a river, 9

enemy territory, 11

investigated

art of war, 1

investigation

knowledge of conditions can only be obtained from, 13

purposes, 13

subject, 8

the situation demands, 9

invisible

we learn to be, 6

involved

dangers, 11

with accomplishing tasks, 11

involving

proper use of terrain, 11

Inward

spies, 13

irritable

the enemy is, 1

irritate

the enemy, 1, 7

irritations

of generals, 3

Isolated

terrain, 8

the enemy using water, 12

issue

orders without regard to usual rules, 11

J

jaded

people, 7

join

your allies, 8, 11

just

essential characteristic of generals, 11

K

keen

hearing, 4

sight, 4

spirits of the enemy, 7

temper of the enemy, 7

keenest

spirits of soldiers at the beginning of a military campaign, 7

keep

a state secure and an army intact, 12

away from the Six Dangerous Configurations of Terrain, 9

enemy soldiers, 2

enemy troops disorganized, 11

in the neighborhood of valleys, 9

others from anticipating, 11

others from understanding, 11

our army concentrated, 6

pushing on along the path, 11

secret the time of your attacks, 11

steadily advancing, 11

the general who listens to my suggestions and acts on them in control, 1

vigilant eyes on your defenses, 11

your army continually maneuvering, 11

keeping

enemies impressed, 11

keeps

aloof, 9

kept

the enemy engaged, 8

Key

battleground, 11

terrain, 10

terrain you control before the enemy, 10

killed

general, 8

kills

horses for food, 9

kind

of disease, 9

of war, 13

kind-hearted

you, 10

kinds

of spy, 13

knew

how to drive wedges between the enemy's front and rear, prevent cooperation between the enemy's large and small divisions, hinder enemy troops from rescuing each other, and hinder enemy officers from rallying their troops, 11

know

enemies you can defeat, 4

how to handle your troops, 8

how to win, 4

our people are in a condition to win, 10

that our people are in a condition to win, 10

that the enemy can be defeated, 10

the enemy, 3, 10

the Five Factors governing the art of war, 1

the intentions, 11

the place and time of battles, 6

the Responsibilities for Victory, 10

the Seven Strategies for Attacking with Fire, 12

the situations of the enemy, 13

the terrain, 10

the weather, 10

there are Five Predictors of Victory, 3

what to attack, 6

what to defend, 6

where strength is superabundant and where it is deficient, 6

yourself, 3, 10

knowing

how to handle both large and small forces, 3

when to fight and when not to fight, 3

knowledge

benefit, 8

branches enable armies to conquer, 9

can only be derived, in the first instance, from Converted spies, 13

of conditions, 13

of conditions can only be derived, in the first instance, from Converted spies, 13

of conditions can only be obtained from investigation, 13

of Responsibilities for Victory, 10

of the Five Predictors of Victory, 3

of the use of indirect and direct strategies, 7

put into practice, 10

known

the general of armies is the arbiter of the people's fates, 2

the place and time of battle, 6

the spot where we intend to attack, 6

L

lack

of intelligence, 9

lacks

skills, 7

ladder

that led the army up the great height, 11

land

secure, 12

large

army, 5

divisions of the enemy, 11

forces, 3

group of our people, 10, 11

masses of people, 7

larger

approaching enemy, 11

army, 3

lasts

wind during the day, 12

late

for the enemy to catch you, 11

to snatch an advantage, 7

launch

an attack with fire, 12

generals' troops to the assault, 3

laws

fundamental, 11

of human nature, 11

lay

plans well ahead, 12

laziness

enemy soldiers display, 9

lead

an army, 7, 11

armies, 11

people, 13

to victory, 1

your army as if you were leading a single person, 11

your army through borders of enemy territory, 11

leaders

marvelous, 6

Leadership

practice, 7

represents the virtues of wisdom, sincerity, benevolence, courage, and discipline, 1

systems, 1

walk in the path defined by, 11

leading

a single person, 11

to victory, 1

leads

to capture, 8

to destruction, 8

to Measurement, 4

learn

the enemy's characteristics, 6

the use of indirect and direct strategies, 7

to be invisible and inaudible, 6

learning

the principle of the enemy's activity or inactivity, 6

about the target's commanders, supporting officers, consultants, and guards, 13

learnt

the use of indirect and direct strategies, 7

leave

your territory, 11

leaving

several fortified cities and towns in your rear, 11

led

the army up the great height, 11

left

dangerous configurations of terrain with all possible speed, 9

side, 6

sides of the enemy, 6

with all possible speed, 9

lengthy

operations, 2

less

troops than the enemy, 6

let

half of an invading enemy's force cross the river, 9

officers and troops know the intentions, 11

the Five Dangerous Faults be a subject of investigation, 8

the food be divided among your troops, 7

the gaps, through which the Constricted terrain was reached, be strongly protected, 10

troops be cornered, 11

your great object be victory, 2

your methods be regulated by the infinite variety of circumstances, 6

your plans be dark and impenetrable as night, 7

your rapidity be that of the wind, 7

your steadfastness be that of the forest, 7

letting

the thoughts run through minds, 11

level

ground, 5

highest you can achieve, 6

terrain, 9

life

chances of, 1

of which the art of war is a matter, 1

light

chariots, 9

lightning

like it, 7

like

a stone smashed against an egg, 5

fire, 7

night and day, 1

rolling logs or stones, 5

shepherds driving flocks of sheep, 11

spoilt children, 10

the four seasons, 5

the potential energy of a loaded weapon, 5

the sun and moon, 5

the timing and accuracy of the release of the trigger of a loaded weapon, 5

thunder and lightning, 7

water, 6

likelihood

of success, 4

of success of the enemy's plans, 6

likely

all the generals will fall into the enemy's hands, 7

an ambush is near, 9

fall into the enemy's hands, 7

opponents lurking near the Four Ambush Configurations of Terrain, 9

to be defeated, 1

to win, 1

to win or lose, 1

wind will fall during the night, 12

likened

to the Shuai Ran snake, 11

limitless

victory, 10

lines

of our encampment, 6

linger

do not, 8

listen

to my suggestions, 1

listens

to my suggestions, 1

live

the people will be prepared to, 1

lives

of soldiers, 11

soldiers do not fear for, 11

loaded

weapon, 5

local

guides, 7, 11

spies, 13

logs

move on slopes, 5

remain motionless on level ground, 5

rolling, 5

when four-cornered, 5

when round-shaped, 5

long

days, 6

time, 9

longevity

our soldiers desire, 11

look

to the effect of combined energy, 5

lose

battles, 1

sense of fear, 11

surely, 10

the general of your foremost division, 7

who is likely to, 1

losing

troops, 3

loss

of wealth, 2

losses

resources of the army, 2

lost

the trust of officers and troops, 9

without, 7

low

dust rises, 9

positions, 9

lure

of the enemy, 9

the enemy away, 10

lurking

opponents near the Four Ambush Configurations of Terrain, 9

lush

grass, 9

M

made

army to imitate the Shuai Ran, 11

our position unassailable, 8

maintain

control of the soldiers, 5

simulated appearances, 5

maintained

relationships with people who discover useful information, 13

maintaining

order, 11

maintains

pass quickly over, 9

position for a long time, 9

maintenance

internal and external expense, 2

of paths, 1

make

a forward move, 11

a move, 7

a point of commandeering food from the enemy, 2

but partial plans, 1

certain of defeating the enemy, 4

certain of the truth of intelligence without subtle ingenuity, 13

certain the truth of intelligence, 13

decisions, 13

defeat impossible, 4

forced progress without halting, 7

great progress without distress, 6

it impossible for the enemy to come, 6

much use of torches and drums, 7

no mistakes, 4

preparations against possible attacks, 6

the best of strong and weak, 11

the best use of people, 8

thorough plans, 1

us suspicious, 9

your authority felt, 10

your way by unexpected routes, 11

makes

victory impracticable, 10

making

people exhausted, 13

tactical arrangements, 4, 6

manage

circumstances, 7

military interactions, 7

mood, 7

mood, psychology, strength, circumstances, and military interactions, 7

psychology, 7

strength, 7

supply routes, 10

the enemy's weaknesses, 6

managed

information properly, 13

to keep enemy troops disorganized, 11

maneuvering

can be advantageous, 7

continually, 11

in the art of it, 7

in war, 7

keep your army continually, 11

skilled warriors, 10

tactical, 7

the art of it, 7

troops, 7

maneuvers

direct and indirect, 5

enable, 9

series, 5

manner

in which groups are formed is slovenly and haphazard, 10

many

families impeded in their productivity, 13

obstacles of bundled grass appear along paths, 9

people, 2, 13

punishments, 9

varieties of battleground, 11

marsh

forced to fight in, 9

marshes

are hard to traverse, 11

crossing, 9

get over them quickly without delay, 9

of the field, 7, 11

marshlands

near which people in ambush or insidious opponents are likely lurking, 9

marvelous

leaders, 6

masking

strength with weakness, 5

masses

of people, 7

master

victory, 13

matched

against an unprepared army, 4

materials

for attack with fire should always be ready, 12

matter

of information, 13

of life and death, 1

of victory, 6

maximize

the likelihood of success, 4

maximum

effort to win battles, 11

generosity, 13

may

be enemies, 11

be followed by content, 12

be like a stone smashed against an egg, 5

be sitting down letting the thoughts run through minds, 11

be standing up expressing opinions, 11

distinguish Six Types of Terrain, 10

face each other for years, 13

in time change to gladness, 12

object, 11

withstand the brunt of attacks and remain unshaken, 5

means

are available for attacking with fire, 12

of these Seven Considerations, 1

officers are weary, 9

reinforcements have arrived, 9

whereby the ears and eyes of the troops may be focused on one particular point, 7

Measurement

Method, 4

measures

suited to the many varieties of battleground, 11

meet

the conditions to attack with fire, 12

messages

of the enemy, 9

met

conditions to launch an attack with fire, 12

Method

adhere, 4

can be understood by, 1

in respect of it, 4

methods

combinations, 5

direct, 5

direct and indirect, 5

indirect, 5

of operation, 5

of victory, 4

regulated by the infinite variety of circumstances, 6

middle

of the Shuai Ran snake, 11

military

campaign, 7

conditions, 1

equipment, 2

interactions, 7

knowledge, 9

knowledge branches enable armies to conquer, 9

plan is established, 11

preparations, 11

principle of adaptation to circumstances, 3

strategies, 1

tactics, 6

mind

presence, 7

minds

of officers and troops, 3

of soldiers are bent only on returning home towards the end of the campaign, 7

of troops, 11

some troops may be sitting down letting the thoughts run through, 11

miscellaneous

internal and external expense, 2

misfortune

on armies, 3

protect ourselves from, 8

turn into gain, 7

misleading

us, 13

miss

the opportunities for defeating the enemy, 4

mistakes

caused by haste, 2

make none, 4

modify

one's plans, 1

tactics in relation to the circumstances of the enemy, 6

moment

critical, 11

favorable, 12

momentum

gain with progress, 5

of round stones rolled down high mountains, 5

money

our soldiers do not detest, 11

mood

strategies to manage, 7

moon

has its periods of waning and waxing, 6

like it, 5

moral

influence, 1

Moral Influence causes the people to be in complete accord with their ruler, 1

cultivate, 4

does your ruler have it, 1

more

likely to be defeated, 1

likely to win, 1

rapidly than the enemy, 6

most

important roles, 10

precious asset, 13

precious asset of generals, 13

threatening dangers, 10

motionless

on level ground, 5

motivate

troops, 11

mountain

be immovable as one, 7

dangerous passes, 11

warfare, 9

mountains

Chung, 11

forested, 11

forested with thick undergrowth, 9

high, 5

of the field, 7, 11

snake found in, 11

move

deliberate before, 7

do not unless you see an advantage, 12

forward, 11

if it is advantageous, 12

make, 11

more rapidly than the enemy, 6

on slopes, 5

the enemy, 6

when troops are in unstable positions, 5

movement

around you, 9

strategies for preliminary analysis, 9

movements

are more rapid than those of the enemy, 6

of the enemy, 6

moving

in a circle, 5

is disadvantageous, 12

is not advantageous, 10

skilled warriors, 10

the enemy with benefits, 5

musical

notes, 5

must

be able to withhold strategic information from officers and troops, 11

be careful to study the Six Types of Terrain, 10

be investigated, 1

be put to death together with the people to whom the secret was told, 13

be sought out, 13

be studied, 11

carefully evaluate proper days for starting attacks with fire, 12

carefully find and examine ambush configurations of terrain, 9

carefully find and examine the Four Ambush Configurations of Terrain, 9

carefully note the Six Distinct Calamities, 10

commission our people to ascertain information, 13

confront death, 11

coordinate, 11

cross rivers, 9

fight, 8, 10

hasten to defend, 6

have great unity, 11

have reasons for the enemy staying in their encampment, 9

know the Seven Strategies for Attacking with Fire, 12

know the Seven Strategies for Attacking with Fire, and vigilantly calculate the conditions for their use, 12

meet the conditions to launch an attack with fire, 12

not fight, 10

reach the standard of courage, 11

reach the standard of courage you establish, 11

strategize, 8

treat troops with humanity, 9

treat troops with humanity, and unite through training, 9

use local guides, 7

use the openings the enemy gives you, 11

muster

troops, 11

mutually

beneficial instructions for generals and troops, 9

mysterious

essential characteristic of generals, 11

N

narrow

gaps, 10

gaps ahead, 11

gaps through which Constricted battleground is reached, 11

nations

best strategy, 3

natural

advantages, 7, 11

advantages of terrain, 10

advantages of the terrain, 9

causes, 10

course of water, 6

crevices, 9

nets, 9

strengths, 9

traps, 9

naturally

confined places, 9

deep voids, 9

Nature

advantages of, 1

fundamental laws, 11

human, 11

inexhaustible, 5

of the ground over which water flows, 6

of the terrain, 10

signifies entities that operate without purpose, 1

near

an ambush, 9

an enormous attack, 9

rivers that they must cross, 9

the enemy, 9

the Four Ambush Configurations of Terrain, 9

you, 9

your goal, 1

your goals, 7

necessary

to begin by learning about the target's commanders, supporting officers, consultants, and guards, 13

need

be feared, 11

chariots, wagons, soldiers, and supplies, 2

not fear the result of a hundred battles, 3

to attack, 6

to throw something odd and unaccountable in the enemy's way, 6

needed

to secure victory, 5

needs

of the army, 2

neglect

to give your best troops the most important roles, 10

negligence

height of, 13

negotiating

conditions, 9

neighborhood

of valleys, 9

neighboring

armies, 7, 11

warlords, 2

neither

place nor time be known, 6

reputation for wisdom nor credit for courage, 4

nets

natural, 9

never

be returned, 12

come again into being, 12

come to an end, 5

new

territory, 7

night

battling, 7

dark and impenetrable, 7

like, 1

soldiers clamor, 9

wind will likely fall during, 12

without halting, 7

no

alternative, 11

calamity need be feared, 11

escape, 11

fixed duties assigned to officers and troops, 10

generals should enter into war simply out of resentment, 12

great extent, 11

immediate goal, 7

place of refuge, 11

plans, 9

practicable opportunities, 12

relationships in the whole army are more intimate than those maintained with people who discover useful information, 13

rewards should be more generous than those given for discovering useful information, 13

rulers should order simply out of anger, 12

none

can discover the system, 13

can see the strategy out of which victory is evolved, 6

norms

bestow rewards with regard to, 11

noted

by generals who have attained responsible posts, 10

the Six Distinct Calamities by generals who have attained responsible posts, 10

notes

give rise to more melodies than can ever be heard, 5

musical, 5

nothing

more difficult than tactical maneuvering, 7

of the dangers involved, 11

of the dangers involved with accomplishing tasks, 11

nourish

your troops, 9

now

to the question of readying the army, 9

number

of enemy soldiers, 10, 11

of our troops, 9

of troops of your army, 3

of your troops, 6

numbers

dividing, 5

of an army, 5

of the army, 3, 6

we shall have to face, 6

numerical

strength, 6

weakness, 6

O

obey

cannot, 3

object

great, 2

is to capture an army, conquer a city, or assassintate an individual, 13

troops may, 11

your, 2

objects

cannot be seen clearly enough, 7

obliged

to resuce, 6

observe

changes, 9, 10

principles, 11

observing

signs of the enemy, 9

obstacles

of bundled grass appear along paths, 9

obtained

foreknowledge, 13

knowledge of conditions from investigation, 13

occasions

appointed, 13

occupy

Constricted terrain before the enemy, 10

high positions, 9

positions that enable fast maneuvers, 9

positions that enable you to observe changes and manage supply routes, 10

positions where supplies are abundant, 9

terrain, 10

the bright side, 9

occur

no internal disorder may, 5

poverty of the State, 2

odd

something to throw in the enemy's way, 6

offense

generals who are skilled, 4

skillful, 6

offensive

tactics, 4, 11

offer

stubborn resistances, 11

offering

the enemy benefits they certainly want, 5

offers

attractive baits, 10

benefits, 7

officers

apply maximum effort to win battles, 11

are angry, 9

are angry and disobedient because the general overlooked their capabilities, 10

are strong, 10

are weak, 10

are weary, 9

are whispering together in small groups, 9

capabilities, 10

confidence, 3

duties assigned, 10

fight resentfully, 10

generals withhold strategic information form, 11

highly trained, 1

hinder from rallying their troops, 11

hiring them, 3

instructing them to accomplish tasks, 11

minds, 3

of the enemy, 11

of the target, 13

restlessness in their minds, 3

senior, 10

troops, 10, 11

officials

of the enemy employed by us, 13

often

the enemy's banners and flags are shifted, 9

omens

prohibit the taking of, 11

on

along the path, 11

appointed occasions, 13

intelligence, 13

intelligence depends an army's ability to make decisions, 13

one position, 11

the army's resources, 13

the battleground, 11

the day your troops are ordered out to battle, 11

the defensive, 4

the people, 13

the side of the fire from which the wind is blowing, 12

us, 13

your defenses, 11

once

been destroyed, 12

one

cannot make certain of the truth of intelligence without subtle ingenuity, 13

cannot make certain the truth of intelligence without subtle ingenuity, 13

deliberations, 1

grudges spending a small portion of daily expense as compensation for services, 13

hand helps another, 11

may know how to win without being able to do it, 4

person, 11

plans, 1

position, 11

should modify one's plans, 1

should properly use the Seven Strategies for Attacking with Fire, 12

standard of courage that all must reach, 11

only

be derived, in the first instance, from Converted spies, 13

be obtained from investigation, 13

be saved from death by fighting without delay, 11

enlightened rulers and wise generals will use the highest intelligence of the army for purposes of investigation, 13

halfway toward victory, 10

retire by tortuous paths, 10, 11

onrush

of a gushing torrent, 5

of an advancing army, 4

open

generals weaknesses, 10

openings

after using, 11

the enemy gives you, 11

you must use, 11

operate

a large army by instituting signs and signals, 5

without purpose, 1

operating

with a large army, 5

with a small army, 5

operation

methods, 5

operations

lengthy, 2

of war, 2

on difficult paths and roads, 9

on level terrain, 9

opinions

of troops, 11

some troops may be standing up expressing, 11

opponents

are likely lurking near the Four Ambush Configurations of Terrain, 9

defeated, 6

opportunities

for defeating the enemy, 4

the effect of the fire brings, 12

the effect of the fire brings none, 12

opportunity

of defeating the enemy, 4

to defeat the enemy, 4

oppose

the enemy, 7

opposed

to a defeated army, 4

opposing

armies may face each other for years, 13

order

hiding beneath the cloak of disorder, 5

maintinaing, 11

simply out of anger, 12

your troops to prepare to attack, 7

ordered

that fighting should be avoiding, 10

troops out to battle, 11

you to fight, 10

orderly

banners and flags of the enemy, 7

orders

are not clear and distinct, 10

from rulers, 7, 8

issue without regard to usual rules, 11

of rulers, 8

ordinary

objects, 7

rules, 1

organizational

control, 1

organized

approaching enemy, 11

superbly, 5

the enemy is, 7

other

armies, 11

conditions, 10

others

generals keep from understanding them, 11

keep from anticipating, 11

keep from understanding, 11

strengths, 10

otherwise

stop still, 11

our

army, 6, 11

encampment, 6

expectation of advantage is tempered by blending considerations of advantage and disadvantage, 8

goal, 11

opponents will be defeated, 6

people, 10, 11

people are in a condition to win, 10

people are not in a condition to win, 10

people must be commissioned to ascertain information, 13

plans, 8

position, 8

position unassailable, 8

readiness to receive the enemy, 8

size, 9

soldiers, 11

ourselves

carefully accommodating to the enemy's purposes, 11

protect from misfortune, 8

out

information, 13

of anger, 12

of resentment, 12

sought, 13

to battle, 11

outlets

of the enemy, 7

outmaneuver

the enemy, 7

over

a wide area, 9

mountains, 9

overburdened

our soldiers with wealth, 11

overlooked

officers' capabilities, 10

overtaken

by a larger army, 3

by the larger army, 3

overtax

your people, 11

overwhelm

like thunder and lightning, 7

the enemy, 6

overwhelmed

by the enemy, 6

P

part

of our plans, 8

partial

plans, 1

plans lead to defeat, 1

particular

point, 7

parts

all must coordinate, 11

of a whole, 6

of your army, 11

pass

away to return once more, 5

quickly over mountains, 9

passage

of emissaries from other armies, 11

passes

dangerous, 11

mountain, 11

path

defined by leadership, 11

do not try to block, 11

of the enemy, 11

pushing on along, 11

paths

by which resources can reach the enemy, 12

by which resources may reach the army, 1

by which we can retire, 11

dangerous, 9

difficult, 7, 9, 11

important, 11

intersect, 8, 11

many obstacles of bundled grass appear along, 9

taking indirect, 11

to follow, 8

tortuous, 10, 11

patiently

wait, 12

peace

in which the army is, 2

penetrate

deeply into enemy territory, 11

shallowly into enemy territory, 11

penetrated

into the heart of enemy territory, 11

warlords into enemy territory, but to no great extent, 11

penetrating

deeply causes cohesion, 11

shallowly causes dispersion, 11

people

a large group, 11

advance cautiously, 11

advance firmly, 11

are deep in enemy territory, 11

are in a condition to win, 10

are not in a condition to win, 10

are trapped in dangerous situations, 11

average, 6, 13

can see the tactics whereby I win, 6

concentrate, 8

confront defeat, 11

control, 5

developing an army of many, 13

do not overtax them, 11

excessive attentiveness to, 8

exhausted, 13

fates, 2

group, 10

handling large masses, 7

have no alternative, 11

have no place of refuge, 11

heavy cost on, 13

homes, 2

in ambush, 9

in the army, 3

income will be dissipated, 2

inspire them with unity of purpose, 11

lead, 13

lose their sense of fear, 11

make the best use of, 8

many, 2

masses of, 7

may be enemies, 11

must be commissioned to ascertain information, 13

must be put to death together with the people to whom the secret was told, 13

of students of war, 8

protect, 10

right, 5

ruler, 1

rulers, 13

sense of fear, 11

stronger will be in front, 7

study their well-being, 11

to be in complete accord with their ruler, 1

to whom the secret was told, 13

use them to discover information for every kind of war, 13

who can modify their tactics in relation to the circumstances of the enemy, 6

who discover useful information, 13

who discovered a secret piece of information, 13

who try to win battles and secure land without cultivating the spirit of enterprise, 12

who use fire to aid attacks are intelligent, 12

who use water to aid attacks are powerful, 12

who will win, 7

will be prepared to live and die, 1

will fall behind, 7

peril

in which the army is, 2

periods

of waning and waxing, 6

permits

cancel, 11

person

average, 4

captures a chariot, 2

direct an army as if instructing one, 11

none, 2

on whom it depends whether the army shall be in peace or in peril, 2

single, 11

unmarried, 11

who captured the chariot, 2

who had served under dynasty, 13

picked

troops, 5

piece

of information is prematurely revealed by people who discovered it, 13

place

armies in positions with no escape, 11

of battle, 6

of battles, 6

of refuge, 11

safe, 11

that the enemy will be obliged to resuce, 6

your army in dangerous situations, and Desperate battleground, 11

your right and rear in high positions, 9

placed

army in vital danger, 11

places

high, 6

naturally confined, 9

where the enemy must hasten to defend, 6

where you are not expected, 6

plan

adequately, 6

is established, 11

to prepare to attack and make forced progress without halting day or night, 7

you are more likely to be defeated if you do not, 1

you are more likely to win if you, 1

planning

in war, 1

plans

accomplish by keeping enemies impressed, 11

accomplish the essential part, 8

art of varying, 8

by changing, 11

devise unfathomable, 11

enlightened rulers lay well ahead, 12

lead to defeat, 1

lead to victory, 1

let them be dark and impenetrable as night, 7

likelihood of success, 6

of a wise general, 8

of armies, 7

of generals, 11

of neighboring armies, 11

of students of war, 8

of the enemy, 3, 6

one should modify them, 1

partial, 1

rulers lay well ahead, 12

thorough, 1

unfathomable, 11

you have none, 9

plot

of the enemy, 9

plots

of the wisest brains, 6

point

given, 6, 8

of commandeering food from the enemy, 2

on which the ears and eyes of the troops may be focused, 7

you are more likely to be defeated if you do not plan, 1

points

all of them, 3

different, 6

poised

the enemy is, 1

ponds

covered with grass and reeds, 9

portion

of daily expense as compensation for services, 13

position

by concentrating our army on one, 11

disadvantageous, 10

is critical, 12

the enemy maintains for a long time, 9

unassailable, 8

positions

high, 9

natural strengths, 9

prefer bright to dark, 9

prefer high to low, 9

soldiers and chariots quickly take, 9

take on the flanks, 9

that cannot be attacked, 6

that enable fast maneuvers, 9

that enable you to observe changes and manage supply routes, 10

that make defeat impossible, 4

to contest, 8

unstable, 5

where supplies are abundant, 9

with no escape, 11

possibilities

of combining direct and indirect methods, 5

possibility

of defeat, 4

possible

attacks, 6

speed, 9

posts

attained by generals, 10

responsible, 10

potential

advantages, 9

energy, 5

poverty

of the State, 2

power

of enemies, 11

to control victory, 4

powerful

enemy, 11

those who use water to aid attacks, 12

practicable

opportunities, 12

practical

art of war, 3

purpose, 10

practically

useless, 9

practice

deception, 7

of leadership, 7

Responsibilities for Victory, 10

Responsibilties for Victory, 10

precious

asset, 13

generals to their armies, 10

precise

in your timing and accuracy, 5

timing and accuracy, 5

predict

victory, 4

predictable

tactics, 4

predictors

of victory, 3

prefer

high positions to low, and bright positions to dark, 9

preliminary

analysis, 9

prematurely

decided nor divulged, 1

revealed information by people who discovered it, 13

preparation

for war, 7

preparations

against possible attacks, 6

aginst possible attacks, 6

finalize in a safe place, 11

the enemy is increasing, 9

prepare

against possible attacks, 6

quickly to attack, 12

to attack, 7

prepared

army, 4

for the enemy, 1

generals, 3

the enemy is, 10

to live and die, 1

preparing

the army, 9

to besiege fortified cities, 3

presence

of mind, 7

preserved

the greatest secrecy, 13

press

the enemy too hard, 7

presupposes

a fund of potential energy, 5

prevent

concentrations of the enemy's troops, 11

cooperation between the enemy's large and small divisions, 11

enemy alliances, 3

the enemy from engaging us, 6

your army from being overtaken by a larger one, 3

your victory, 11

prey

bird of it, 5

prices

cause contributors' wealth to be drained away, 2

go up, 2

primary

colors, 5

principle

of adaptation to circumstances, 3

of the enemy's activity or inactivity, 6

on which to lead an army, 11

principles

an invading army should observe, 11

of subtlety and secrecy, 6

problematic

if the sections of the army that have made the least progress toward their goals are far behind, and communication is ineffective, 6

process

involving proper use of terrain, 11

produced

victory out of the enemy's tactics, 6

productivity

of families, 13

profitable

ways of waging wars, 2

profiting

from my suggestions, 1

from suggestions, 1

progress

forced, 7

gain momentum, 5

the campaign, 7

toward the army's goals, 6

without distress, 6

progressing

let your rapidity be that of the wind, 7

prohibit

the taking of omens, 11

prolonged

campaign, 2

warfare, 2

prominent

elements of the universe, 6

promptly

troops comply, 11

proper

days for starting attacks with fire, 12

time for attacking with fire, 12

use of terrain, 11

properly

managed information, 13

use the Seven Strategies for Attacking with Fire, 12

proportionately

few, 6

proposes

a truce, 9

protect

ourselves, 4

ourselves from misfortune, 8

people, 10

protected

the gaps through which Constricted terrain was reached, 10

protects

Constricted terrain, 10

provided

by the enemy themselves, 4

providing

incentives for the enemy to stay, 6

provisions

the enemy has none, 9

provoke

battle, 9

enemy engagement, 10

provoked

hasty temper by insults, 8

proximity

of an army, 2

prudent

enlightened rulers are, 12

prying

of the subtlest spies, 6

psychology

manage, 7

strategies to manage, 7

punishment

retreat without fearing, 10

punishments

consistent, 1

generals give too many, 9

purpose

inspire people with unity of, 11

of controlling your troops, 11

practical, 10

without, 1

purposes

of investigation, 13

of the enemy, 11

pursue

the enemy, 7

pursuit

from which you may retire and be safe, 6

pushing

on along the path, 11

put

knowledge into practice, 10

to death, 13

your knowledge of Responsibilities for Victory into practice, 10

yourself beyond the possibility of defeat, 4

yourself into a position that makes defeat impossible, 4

puts

away cooking tools, 9

Q

quantity

estimation, 4

quelling

disorder, 10

question

of dividing an army's numbers, 5

of instituting banners and flags, 5

of readying the army, 9

of subdivision, 5

quickly

attack, 12

get over swamps and marshes without delay, 9

pass over mountains, 9

prepare to attack, 12

soldiers and chariots take positions, 9

stop attacking, 12

quiet

enemy soldiers remain, 12

the enemy remains, 9

when troops are established, 5

R

rabbit

escaping, 11

rain

upstream of a river that you wish to ford, 9

rallying

troops, 11

ramps

building, 3

ranks

of armies, 3

rapid

movements, 6

rapidity

is the essence of war, 11

let it be that of the wind, 7

rapidly

more than the enemy, 6

rather

than allowing damage, 3

ratio

of the number of troops of your army to that of the enemy, 3

rationally

choose, 10

reach

a significant total each day, 2

of average people, 13

our goal, 11

the army, 1

the enemy, 12

the goal before the enemy, 7

the goal of the army, 7

the standard of courage, 11

the standard of courage that you establish, 11

your goal, 7

reached

battleground through narrow gaps, 11

terrain through narrow gaps, 10

readiness

to receive the enemy, 8

ready

equipment and materials for attacking with fire should always be, 12

to fight, 6

to seize an advantage when amid difficulties, 8

readying

the army, 9

rear

divisions, 6

have to the forest, 9

is safe, 9

of the enemy, 11

place in a high position, 9

place in high positions, 9

relieve, 6

unable to support the front, 6

rears

of armies, 11

reasons

for the enemy staying in their enampment, 9

receive

orders from rulers, 7, 8

the enemy, 8

receptive

troops, 9

unless troops are, 9

recesses

of the earth, 4

Recklessness

which leads to destruction, 8

recognizes

many varieties of battleground, 11

reeds

covering ponds, 9

referred

to as skillful accomplishment, 11

refilled

supplies, 2

refuge

people have no place of, 11

place of, 11

you have no place of, 11

refuges

deep, 6

regard

to norms, 11

to usual rules, 11

your troops as your beloved children, 10

regulated

methods by the infinite variety of circumstances, 6

reinforcements

everywhere, 6

have arrived, 9

relation

to the circumstance of the enemy, 6

to the enemy, 6

relationships

maintained with people who discover useful information, 13

none in the whole army are more intimate than those maintained with people who discover useful information, 13

relaxed

the enemy is, 1

relaxing

the enemy is, 6

release

of the trigger of a loaded weapon, 5

reliable

troops, 11

relieve

the rear, 6

rely

on our readiness to receive the enemy, 8

on our readiness to receive the enemy, and the fact that we have made our position unassailable, 8

on tethering horses, 11

on the fact that we have made our position unassailable, 8

solely on our size, 9

relying

on natural strengths of positions, 9

remain

ignorant of conditions, 13

intact, 3

motionless on level ground, 5

quiet, 12

quiet when troops are established, 5

safe, 11

unshaken, 5

remaining

hidden, 6

remains

quiet, 9

remove

the ladder that led the army up the great height, 11

repeat

the tactics that have gained you one victory, 6

represents

the virtues of wisdom, sincerity, benevolence, courage, and discipline, 1

reprimanded

troops before they have grown attached to you, 9

reprimands

are not used, 9

reputation

for wisdom, 4

require

too much from individuals, 5

requires

defensive tactics, 4

offensive tactics, 4

rescue

the enemy will be obliged to, 6

the left side, 6

the right side, 6

rescuing

each other, 11

resentfully

fight, 10

resentment

no generals should enter into war simply out of, 12

reserves

without which an army is lost, 7

resistance

encounter none, 6

resistances

it is troops' inclination to offer, 11

resource

important, 13

intelligence is extraordinarily important, 13

resources

can reach the enemy, 12

controlled use of, 1

gather, 11

good generals cultivate, 12

may reach the army, 1

of the army, 2, 13

of the enemy, 11

of the State, 2

respect

of Method, 4

responsibilities

for victory, 10

practice them, 10

responsibility

of generals, 11

responsible

for faults, 10

posts, 10

posts attained by generals, 10

rest

if the enemy is toiling and struggling, 7

restless

people in the army, 3

restlessness

in officers' and troops' minds, 3

restricted

without being, 11

result

in victory, 9, 10

of a hundred battles, 3

of battles, 3

victory, 9

waste of time and general stagnation, 12

results

from being hurled against an army ten times the size of your army, 10

from generals, 10

great, 13

if officers are strong and their troops are weak, 10

if senior officers are angry and disobedient because the general overlooked their capabilities, and they fight resentfully, 10

if troops are strong and their officers are weak, 10

in disorganization, 10

retains

no constant shape, 6

retire

by tortuous paths, 10, 11

you may, 6

retreat

alone, 7

block any way of, 11

if the enemy controls Key terrain before you, 10

instructing the army to, 3

is hopeless, 11

the enemy will soon, 9

without fearing punishment, 10

retreating

half the enemy troops are seen, 9

the enemy, 9

to entice the enemy, 10

return

home, 7

once more, 5

the enemy to their camp, 9

returned

from enemy territory with information, 13

time can never be, 12

returning

home, 7

reveal

intentions, 11

the enemy, 6

revealed

information prematurely by people who discovered it, 13

reward

the person who captured the chariot, 2

rewards

bestow without regard to norms, 11

consistent, 1

for the army, 2

generals give too frequently, 9

given for discovering useful information, 13

none should be more generous than those given for discovering useful information, 13

right

people, 5

place in high positions, 9

side, 6

sides, 6

sides of the enemy, 6

rigorously

enforced discipline, 1

rise

a few clusters of dust, 9

birds in flight, 9

of dynasty, 13

rises

high, 9

low and over a wide area, 9

wind, 12

risky

areas behind you, 11

river

causing to swell and foam, 9

cross, 9

crossing, 9

crossing in the same boat as the enemy, 11

ford, 9

get far away from it after crossing it, 9

invading enemy is crossing, 9

that you wish to ford, 9

warfare, 9

rivers

flow, 5

that an invading enemy must cross, 9

road

to safety or ruin, 1

roads

difficult, 7, 9, 11

robbed

generals of their presence of mind, 7

the army of its spirit, 7

roles

the most important, 10

roll

stone along the course of a gushing torrent, 5

when logs and stones are round-shaped, 5

rolled

stones down high mountains, 5

rolling

logs or stones, 5

round

stones rolled down high mountains, 5

round-shaped

logs and stones, 5

rousing

the enemy, 6

route

circuitous, 7

routes

manage, 10

supply, 10

unexpected, 11

ruin

results if senior officers are angry and disobedient because the general overlooked their capabilities, and they fight resentfully, 10

to which the art of war is a road, 1

ruinous

to the conduct of war, 8

rule

do not besiege a fortified city if avoidable, 3

ruler

have Moral Influence, 1

with which Moral Influence causes the people to be in complete accord, 1

rulers

are prudent, 12

foreknowledge enables them to achieve victories beyond the reach of average people, 13

generals do good service for, 10

help them, 13

interfered, 3

lay their plans well ahead, 12

none should order simply out of anger, 12

ordered that fighting should be avoided, 10

ordered you to fight, 10

orders, 7, 8

orders to follow, 8

plans, 12

will use the highest intelligence of the army for purposes of investigation, 13

wise, 13

rules

army development, 2

issue orders without regard to, 11

ordinary, 1

run

thoughts through some troops' minds, 11

runs

away from high places, 6

rush

forth, 10

the enemy to any given point, 8

S

sacrificed

equipment and supplies, 7

safe

army can remain, 11

from prying of the subtlest spies and plots of the wisest brains, 6

from pursuit, 6

place, 11

your rear, 9

safety

of your defense, 6

to which the art of war is a road, 1

said

about the practice of leadership, 7

same

as the control of a few people, 5

boat as your enemy, 11

sanctuaries

of generals, 1

saved

from death by fighting without delay, 11

say

begin by seizing something the enemy values, so they will accede to your demands, 11

saying

enlightened rulers lay their plans well ahead, and good generals cultivate their resources, 12

if you know the enemy and know yourself you need not fear the result of a hundred battles, and if you know yourself but not the enemy for every victory won you will also suffer a defeat, and if you neither the enemy nor yourself you will be defeated in every battle, 3

if you know the enemy and know yourself your victory will be undoubtable, and if you know the weather and know the terrain your victory will be limitless, 10

one may know how to win without being able to do it, 4

scattered

troops, 11

scheming

so as to discover the enemy's plans and the likelihood of their success, 6

science

of weaknesses and strengths, 5

seasons

like, 1

like the four of them, 5

make way for each other in turn, 6

second

burn enemy stockpiles, 12

in the battlefield, 6

secrecy

is ensured, 11

principle, 6

the greatest should be preserved, 13

secret

piece of information is prematurely revealed by people who discovered it, 13

recesses of the earth, 4

the time of your attacks, 11

was told, 13

sections

of the army, 6

secure

land, 12

ourselves against defeat, 4

potential advantages, 9

state, 12

victory, 5

security

against defeat, 4

internal and external expense, 2

of Terrain, 1

see

an advantage, 12

that there are close connections between all parts of your army, 11

the strategy out of which victory is evolved, 6

the tactics whereby I win, 6

seeking

to determine the conditions existing in the field, 1

seem

far from your goal, 1

incapable, 1

near your goal, 1

unable to advance, 1

seen

troops advancing, 9

sees

potential advantages, 9

seize

an advantage when amid difficulties, 8

seizing

something the enemy values, 11

sends

reinforcements everywhere, 6

senior

officers, 10

sense

of fear, 11

sensitive

to shame, 8

sent

soldiers to gather water, 9

separate

parts of a whole, 6

the enemy, 1, 3

troops, 7

your troops, 7

series

of maneuvers, 5

Serious

battleground, 11

served

under dynasty, 13

service

for rulers, 10

services

compensation for, 13

set

a fully equipped army to snatch an advantage, 7

settle

a few clusters of dust, 9

do not, 8

seven

considerations to determine the military conditions, 1

considerations to forecast victory or defeat, 1

strategies for attacking with fire, 12

several

different points, 6

fortified cities and towns, 11

shaking

officers' and troops' confidence, 3

shallowly

penetrate into enemy territory, 11

penetrating causes dispersion, 11

penetrating into enemy territory, 11

shame

sensitive to, 8

shape

of water, 6

shapes

course of water, 6

sheep

driving flocks, 11

sheltered

the enemy is, 6

shepherds

driving flocks of sheep, 11

shields

loss, 2

shifted

the enemy's banners and flags, 9

shifting

campsites, 11

short

days, 6

of food, 9

should

always be ready, 12

answer, 11

avoid fighting, 10

be familiar to all generals, 1

be left with all possible speed, 9

be more generous than rewards given for discovering useful information, 13

be preserved, 13

enter into war simply out of resentment, 12

form a single, united body, 7

generally use strategies, depending on the battleground, 11

get the enemy to approach the Six Dangerous Configurations of Terrain, 9

get the enemy to ignore the Six Dangerous Configurations of Terrain, 9

modify one's plans, 1

not ignore any of the many varieties of battleground, 11

not rely solely on our size, 9

observe principles, 11

order simply out of anger, 12

properly use the Seven Strategies for Attacking with Fire, 12

say, 11

use strategies depending on the battleground, 11

use technique with sufficient strength and continually evaluate the enemy, 9

show

of timidity, 5

showing

that the enemy will not return to their camp, 9

shows

generals' supreme lack of intelligence, 9

knowledge of the use of indirect and direct strategies, 7

shrewdly

calculate difficulties, dangers, distances, 10

side

bright, 9

in control of Key terrain, 10

left, 6

of the fire from which the wind is blowing, 12

of the fire that is in the direction in which the wind is blowing, 12

right, 6

sides

left, 6

right, 6

sight

keen, 4

sign

of great strength, 4

of keen hearing, 4

of keen sight, 4

signals

instituting, 5

significant

fraction of the people's income, 2

portion of the army's total resources, 2

total each day, 2

value, 13

signifies

entities that operate without purpose, 1

signs

instituting, 5

of the enemy, 9

simply

because one grudges spending a small portion of daily expense as compensation for services, 13

out of anger, 12

out of resentment, 12

simulate

disorder, 5

fear, 5

weakness, 5

simulated

appearances, 5

simulates

flight, 7

sincerity

virtue represented by Leadership, 1

single

person, 11

united body, 6, 7

sitting

some troops letting the thoughts run through their minds, 11

situation

demands vigilant investigation, 9

desperate, 9

situations

dangerous, 11

of the enemy, 13

people are trapped in, 11

six

dangerous configurations of terrain, 9

distinct calamities, 10

types of terrain, 10

size

do not rely solely on, 9

of your army, 10

skilled

in defense, 4

in offense, 4

warriors, 10

skillful

accomplishment, 11

at controlling activity, 5

generals, 3, 11

generals of old, 11

in defense, 6

in offense, 6

tactician, 11

warriors, 2, 4, 5, 11

skills

the enemy lacks, 7

use them, 7

slopes

on which logs and stones move, 5

slovenly

manner in which groups are formed, 10

sluggish

the enemy is, 7

small

army, 5

distances, 1

divisions of the enemy, 11

forces, 3

groups, 9

number of enemy soldiers, 10, 11

portion of daily expense as compensation for services, 13

portion of your army, 7

smashed

a stone against an egg, 5

snake

head, 11

imitate, 11

middle, 11

Shuai Ran, 11

tail, 11

snatch

an advantage, 7

soldier

conscript, 2

soldiers

a small number would suffice to defeat a large group of our people, 11

achieve their victories, 6

are afraid, 9

are hungry and short of food, 9

are not overburdened with wealth, 11

are suffering from thirst, 9

begin by drinking, 9

captured from the enemy, 2

clamor at night, 9

desire longevity, 11

display laziness, 9

do not detest money, 11

do not fear for their lives, 11

lives, 11

maintain control, 5

minds are bent only on returning home, 7

of the enemy, 3, 10, 11, 12

of the enemy remain quiet, 12

of which we will need many to develop an army of many people, 2

quickly take positions, 9

spirits are keenest at the beginning of a military campaign, 7

spirits begin to diminish as the campaign progresses, 7

training, 9

who are sent to gather water, 9

sole

concern, 9

solely

rely on our size, 9

some

troops may be sitting down letting the thoughts run through their minds, 11

troops may be standing up expressing their opinions, 11

something

the enemy values, 11

to gain, 12

soon

the enemy will approach, 9

the enemy will retreat, 9

sought

out, 13

speaking

in subdued tones, 9

speaks

ardently, 9

humbly, 9

spears

loss, 2

speed

all possible, 9

spending

a small portion of daily expense as compensation for services, 13

spent

funds, 2

spies

be treated with maximum generosity, 13

Converted, 13

deliberately given false information, 13

Doomed, 13

employed by us, 13

Inward, 13

Local, 13

Local and Inward, 13

subtlest, 6

Surviving, 13

who have returned from enemy territory with information, 13

spirit

of armies, 3

of enterprise, 12

of the army, 7

spirits

from whom the foreknowledge that enables extraordinary achievements cannot be obtained, 13

of soldiers are keenest at the beginning of a military campaign, 7

of the enemy are keen, 7

split

groups of the enemy into fractions, 6

split into fractions groups of the enemy, 6

spoilt

children, 10

spoken

words, 7

spot

where we intend to attack, 6

spots

to attack, 11

unguarded, 11

spy

kinds, 13

on us, 13

squads

best strategy, 3

stagnation

general, 12

standard

of courage that all must reach, 11

standing

on the defensive, 4

some troops expressing their opinions, 11

standstills

when logs and stones are four-cornered, 5

start

an attack with fire, 12

started

after the enemy, 7

starting

attacks with fire, 12

startled

animals, 9

starve

the enemy out, 6

State

keep secure, 12

poverty, 2

resources, 2

supplies, 2

to which the art of war is of vital importance, 1

stay

incentives for the enemy to, 6

where you are, 12

staying

the enemy in their encampment, 9

steadfastness

let it be that of the forest, 7

steadily

advancing, 11

keep advancing, 11

steep

barriers, 9

still

gone only halfway toward victory, 10

stop, 11

troops will be useless, 9

we can have the advantage, 9

stockpiles

of the enemy, 12

stone

smashed against an egg, 5

stones

move on slopes, 5

remain motionless on level ground, 5

rolled along the course of a gushing torrent, 5

rolled down high mountains, 5

rolling, 5

when four-cornered, 5

when round-shaped, 5

stop

attacking, 12

Doomed spies from misleading us, 13

still, 11

the passage of emissaries from other armies, 11

storm

caught by, 11

straightforwardness

without which information cannot be properly managed, 13

strain

to which the resources of the State will not be equal, 2

strategic

attacks, 3

considerations, 8

information, 11

tradeoffs, 7

strategically

attacking, 3

strategies

apply to the enemy, 8

conditions for their use, 12

depend on advantages of the enemy, 1

depend on disadvantages of the enemy, 1

depend on the enemy, 6

depend on the ratio of the number of troops of your army to that of the enemy, 3

depend on your conditions, 1

dependent on the battleground, if your army is invading

dependent on the ratio of the number of troops of your army to that of the enemy, 3

depending on the battleground, 11

for attacking with fire, 12

for five terrains, 8

for maneuvering troops, 7

for prelimary analysis, 9

indirect and direct, 7

of skilled warriors, 10

of the military, leading to victory, cannot be decided nor divulged prematurely, 1

that maximize the likelihood of success, 4

that should generally be used by generals, depending on the battelground, 11

to manage circumstances, 7

to manage military interactions, 7

to manage mood, 7

to manage mood, psychology, strength, circumstances, and military interactions, 7

to manage psychology, 7

to manage strength, 7

strategists

successful, 4

who are destined to defeat, 4

strategize

in Constricted battleground, 11

you must, 8

strategizing

generals, 11

strategy

best of all, 3

dependent on the battleground, if your army is invading

for Equitable terrain, 10

out of which victory is evolved, 6

streams

flow, 5

strength

augment, 2

comes from compelling the enemy to prepare against possible attacks, 6

exhausted, 2

exhaustion, 2

great, 4

hoard, 11

insufficient, 4

is equal to that of the enemy, 10

know where it is superabundant and where it is deficient, 6

manage, 7

masking with weakness, 5

strategies to manage, 7

sufficient, 9

superabundance, 4

use the enemy to augment, 2

you will exhaust your, 2

strengthens

the enemy's foremost divisions, 6

the enemy's left sides, 6

the enemy's rear divisions, 6

their right sides, 6

strengths

of others, 10

of the enemy's positions, 9

science, 5

using, 6

stretch

covering double the usual distance, 7

strike

at the Shuai Ran snake's middle, 11

at the Shuai Ran snake's tail, 11

at the Shuain Ran snake's head, 11

at what is weak, 6

strive

to ally with enemies, 11

striving

for victory that is decided in a day, 13

strong

army, 1, 3

avoid, 6

determining how to make the best of, 11

officers, 10

the enemy is, 1

troops, 10

you are, 5

stronger

people, 7

strongly

protected the gaps through which Constricted terrain was reached, 10

struggling

the enemy is, 7

stubborn

resistances troops offer, 11

students

are acquainted with the Five Strategic Considerations, 8

of war, 8

people, 8

plans, 8

studied

aspects of war, 11

study

carefully, 11

the Six Types of Terrain, 10

the well-being of your people, 11

subdivision

question, 5

subdue

the enemy, 3

subdued

tones, 9

subject

of investigation, 8

subside

the water before trying to ford a river, 9

wait for the water to, 9

substituted

army banner, 2

subtle

be extremely, 13

ingenuity, 13

subtlest

spies, 6

subtlety

principle, 6

succeed

in accomplishing the essential part of our plans, 8

in winning, 6

succeeding

in your attacks, 6

success

likelihood, 6

maximize likelihood, 4

successful

strategists, 4

succumb

the enemy will, 8

suddenly

birds rise in flight, 9

suffer

defeat, 3

suffering

from thirst, 9

suffice

to crush a large group of our people, 10

to defeat a large group of our people, 11

sufficient

strength, 9

suggestions

act on them, 1

listen to them, 1

profiting from, 1

suited

to the many varieties of battleground, 11

Sun

like it, 5

Zi, a, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13

superabundance

of strength, 4

superabundant

strength, 6

superbly

organized, 5

superior

the enemy is, 7

superstitious

doubts, 11

supplies

are abundant, 9

are transported long distances, 2

emptied, 2

enough, 11

of food, 11

of the enemy cannot be destroyed, 12

of which we will need many to develop an army of many people, 2

refilled, 2

transporting to an army over long distances, 2

will be sacrificed, 7

without which an army is lost, 7

supply

of fodder, 2

routes, 10

support

far from, 10

is complete at all points, 3

is defective, 3

of the army, 3

of troops, 11

the front, 6

you, 11

you until death, 10

supporting

officers of the target, 13

supremacy

contend, 3

to the army that controls Central battleground, 11

Supreme

Excellence, 3

lack of intelligence, 9

system, 13

sure

of succeeding in your attacks, 6

to be captured, 9

to result in victory, 10

surely

find the cause among the Five Dangerous Faults, 8

lose, 10

the cause will be found among the Five Dangerous Faults, 8

surround

the enemy, 3, 7

surrounded

troops, 11

surroundings

strategies for preliminary analysis, 9

survive

army can, 11

Surviving

spies, 13

suspicious

the enemy wants to make us, 9

swamp

forced to fight in, 9

swamps

are hard to traverse, 11

crossing, 9

of the field, 7, 11

swell

river, 9

swift

team of troops, 7

swiftly

advance to places where you are not expected, 6

swoop

of a bird of prey, 5

system

none can discover, 13

none can discover when the Five Kinds of Spy are used together, 13

supreme, 13

systems

of leadership, 1

T

tactical

arrangements, 4, 5, 6

maneuvering, 7

tactician

may be likened to the Shuai Ran snake, 11

skillful, 11

tactics

advisability, 11

defensive, 4

end but to begin anew, 5

in relation to the circumstances of the enemy, 6

indirect, 5

least predictable, 4

military, 6

of the enemy, 6

offensive, 4

offensive or defensive, 11

pass away to return once more, 5

study advisability, 11

that have gained you victory, 6

variation, 8

varying, 8

whereby I win, 6

tail

of the Shuai Ran snake, 11

take

a circuitous route, 7

positions, 9

positions on the flanks, 9

time, 3

taken

into account in one's deliberations, 1

taking

indirect paths, 11

of omens, 11

target

commanders, supporting officers, consultants, and guards, 13

destroy, 5

tasks

instructing officers and troops to accomplish, 11

tastes

cardinal, 5

teaches

us, 8

team

of troops, 7

technique

with sufficient strength, 9

tell

officers and troops nothing of the dangers involved, 11

officers and troops nothing of the dangers involved with accomplishing tasks, 11

temper

hasty, 8

of the enemy is keen, 7

tempered

expectation of advantage by blending considerations of advantage and disadvantage, 8

tempted

with compensation, 13

termed

the responsibility of generals, 11

Terrain

Accessible, 10

advantages of, 1

ambush configurations, 9

be careful to study them, 10

Central, 8

comprises, 1

Constricted, 8, 10

dangerous configurations, 9

Dangerously Isolated, 8

Desperate, 8

determining how to make the best of strong and weak is a process involving the proper use of, 11

Difficult, 8

Distant, 10

do not approach, 9

Entangling, 10

Equitable, 10

get the enemy to ignore them, 9

in which important paths intersect, 8

inexhaustible, 5

Key, 10

know, 10

leads to Measurement, 4

level, 9

must be carefully found and examined, 9

nature, 10

occupy before the enemy, 10

opponents are likely lurking near them, 9

proper use, 11

strategies for preliminary analysis, 9

the enemy controls before you, 10

types, 10

use natural advantages of, 9, 10

while we face them, 9

you control before the enemy, 10

terrains

evaluating, 10

strategies, 8

territories

administer, 3

territory

fighting in your own, 11

invading, 11

leave, 11

new, 7

of the enemy, 11, 13

of the enemy you penetrate deeply into, 11

of the enemy you penetrate shallowly into, 11

of warlords, 11

penetrated into, but to no great extent, 11

people are deep in, 11

skillful warriors lead armies deep into, 11

well-trained troops are deep in, 11

where there is no enemy, 6

you go far into, 11

you lead your army through borders of, 11

tethering

horses, 11

then

reveal intentions, 11

there

are close connections between all parts of your army, 11

are Five Factors governing the art of war, 1

are Seven Considerations to forecast victory or defeat, 1

is movement around you, 9

is rain upstream, 9

is rain upstream of a river that you wish to ford, 9

is something to gain, 12

wait for the enemy to arrive, 10

thereby

achieve great results, 13

thick

undergrowth, 9

thinking

generals, 11

thirst

soldiers are suffering, 9

thorough

plans, 1

plans lead to victory, 1

thoroughly

acquainted with the dangers of wars, 2

understand the profitable ways of waging wars, 2

those

who remain ignorant of conditions, 13

who were called skillful generals of old, 11

thoughts

run through some troops' minds, 11

threatening

dangers, 10

three

primary colors, 5

through

borders of enemy territory, 11

Converted spies, 13

narrow gaps, 10, 11

some troops' minds, 11

the most threatening dangers, 10

training, 9

throw

something odd and unaccountable in the enemy's way, 6

thunder

like it, 7

time

a second one, 2

can never be returned, 12

for attacking with fire, 12

in it, 12

much of it, 3

of battle, 6

of battles, 6

of your attacks, 11

the enemy maintains their position, 9

waste of it, 12

times

like, 1

the size of your army, 10

timidity

show, 5

timing

control, 5

of warriors, 5

tire

the enemy, 1, 6

to

a significant value, 13

accomplish tasks, 11

achieve victories beyond the reach of average people, 13

advance, 1

aid attacks, 12

all generals, 1

ally against excellent generals, 11

ally with enemies, 11

an engagement, 6

appear in the enemy's encampment, 12

ascertain information about the target's commanders, supporting officers, consultants, and guards, 13

attack, 6, 12

attack an inferior force, 6

augment your strength, 2

battle, 11

be captured, 9

be in complete accord with your ruler, 1

be taken into account in one's deliberations, 1

begin by learning about the target's commanders, supporting officers, consultants, and guards, 13

benefit from natural advantages, 7, 11

block the enemy's path, 11

burn enemy armories, 12

burn enemy equipment, 12

burn enemy soldiers, 12

burn enemy stockpiles, 12

burn paths by which resources can reach the enemy, 12

capture an army, conquer a city, or assassinate an individual, 13

capture the enemy, 9

catch you, 11

comply promptly, 11

concentrate or separate your troops, 7

conquer, 9

conquer cities and win, 11

cope with an approaching enemy that is larger and organized, 11

crush a large group of our people, 10

defeat, 1

defeat a large group of our people, 11

defend, 6

determine the conditions existing in the field, 1

determine the military conditions, 1

discover information for every kind of war, 13

drive wedges between the enemy's front and rear, prevent cooperation between the enemy's large and small divisions, hinder enemy troops from rescuing each other, and hinder enemy officers from rallying their troops, 11

effectively communicate, 7

enforce your instructions, 10

ensure victory, 9

ensure wind, 12

entice the enemy, 1

establish one standard of courage, 11

establish one standard of courage that all must reach, 11

fight, 6

ford a river, 9

ford the river, 9

forecast victory or defeat, 1

gain, 12

gain advantages, 11

have advantage, 10

have advantage in Accessible terrain, 10

keep a state secure and an army intact, 12

keep enemy troops disorganized, 11

launch an attack with fire, 12

lead an army, 11

live and die, 1

make decisions, 13

make preparations against possible attacks, 6

make the best of strong and weak, 11

make the best use of people, 8

make us suspicious, 9

make your authority felt, 10

muster troops and bring them into danger, 11

observe changes and manage supply routes, 10

occupy positions that enable you to observe changes and manage supply routes, 10

offer stubborn resistances, 11

places where you are not expected, 6

planning, 1

prepare against possible attacks, 6

prevent your army from being overtaken by a larger one, 3

reach the goal before the enemy, 7

receive the enemy, 8

rely on our readiness to receive the enemy, and the fact that we have made our position unassailable, 8

rely on tethering horses, and burying chariot wheels, 11

remain ignorant of conditions, 13

remain ignorant of conditions simply because one grudges spending a small portion of daily expense as compensation for services, 13

remain intact, 3

safety or ruin, 1

spy on us, 13

study the Six Types of Terrain, 10

the enemy's purposes, 11

victory, 1

win, 1, 4, 10

win battles, 11

win battles and secure land, 12

win or lose, 1

withhold strategic information from officers and troops, 11

work hard, 11

your demands, 11

together

officers and troops whispering in small groups, 9

the Five Kinds of Spy are used, 13

used the Five Kinds of Spy, 13

with the people to whom the secret was told, 13

toiling

the enemy is, 7

told

secret, 13

tones

subdued, 9

tools

cooking, 9

torches

make much use of, 7

use, 7

torrent

gushing, 5

tortuous

paths, 10, 11

total

each day, 2

resources of the army, 2

toward

the army's goals, 6

victory, 10

towards

the end of the campaign, 7

towns

fortified, 11

you leave in your rear, 11

traced

the lines of our encampment, 6

tradeoffs

strategic, 7

trained

officers and troops, 1

training

soldiers, 9

unite troops through, 9

traitorous

spies deliberately given false information, 13

transportation

internal and external expense, 2

transported

long distances, 2

transporting

supplies to an army over long distances, 2

trapped

people in dangerous situations, 11

traps

natural, 9

travel

permits, 11

traverse

Accessible terrain, 10

Difficult battleground, 11

freely, 10

traversed

freely by everyone, 11

treat

enemy soldiers kindly, 2

troops with humanity, 9

your troops with care, 10

treated

Converted spies with maximum generosity, 13

troops with humanity, 9

well, 13

tremendous

courage displayed by troops, 11

tries

to provoke battle, 9

trigger

of a loaded weapon, 5

troops

act for the benefit of, 9

advance at full capacity to outmaneuver the enemy, 7

advance at three-fifths capacity, 7

apply maximum effort to win battles, 11

ardor will be damped, 2

are deep in enemy territory, 11

are ordered out to battle, 11

are reprimanded before they have grown attached to you, 9

are seen advancing, 9

are strong, 10

are weak, 10

are whispering together in small groups, 9

become like rolling logs or stones, 5

before they have grown attached to you, 9

bring into danger, 11

bring them into danger, 11

cannot help themselves, 11

confidence, 3

decide whether to concentrate or separate, 7

decide whether to concentrate or separate them, 7

deliberate when challenged, 5

detach to snatch an advantage, 7

display tremendous courage, 11

do an excessive amount to wrest an advantage, 7

do not let them know the intentions, 11

do not use unless there is something to gain, 12

do your will, 11

duties assigned, 10

elements, 7

equipment and supplies will be sacrificed, 7

exhausted, 3

eyes and ears may be focused on one particular point, 7

gain momentum with progress, 5

gather, 7, 8

generals muster, 11

generals muster and bring into danger, 11

generals withhold strategic information from, 11

give the best the most important roles, 10

good, 5

handle, 8

have fallen into danger, 11

highly trained, 1

hinder enemy officers from rallying them, 11

hinder from rescuing each other, 11

inclination to offer stubborn resistances, 11

instruct them to gain advantages, 11

instruct to gain advantages, 11

instructing them to accomplish tasks, 11

instructions, 11

instructions are mutually beneficial, 9

it is insufficient to rely on tethering horses and burying chariot wheels, for the purpose of controlling them, 11

keep disorganized, 11

launch to the assult, 3

let the food you commandeer from the enemy be divided among them, 7

let them be cornered, 11

losing, 3

maneuvering, 7

may object, 11

minds, 3, 11

motivate, 11

motivate themselves, 11

move when in unstable positions, 5

must be inspired, 2

must be trated with humanity, and united through training, 9

must be treated with humanity, 9

nourish, 9

nourish them, 9

number of ours is no more than that of the enemy, 9

of the enemy, 3, 11

of the enemy have been drawn, 10

of your army, 3

officers, 10

opinions, 11

order to prepare to attack, 7

picked, 5

regard as your beloved children, 10

reliable, 11

remain quiet when established, 5

restlessness in their minds, 3

should form a single, united body, 7

some may be standing up expressing their opinions, 11

strategies for maneuvering, 7

support you, 11

tell them nothing of the dangers involved, 11

tell them nothing of the dangers involved with accomplishing tasks, 11

the general has lost their trust, 9

the number, 6

to muster them, 11

treat with care, 10

useless for any practical purpose, 10

vigilant, 11

weapons will grow dull, 2

well-trained, 11

were scattered, 11

when they have become attached to you, 9

will be like spoilt children, 10

will be practically useless, 9

will follow you through the most threatening dangers, 10

will form a single, united body, 7

will not be receptive, 9

will still be useless, 9

will support you until death, 10

trouble

generals exposed, 8

is sure to come from the enemy, 3

truce

the enemy proposes, 9

the enemy wishes, 9

trust

of officers and troops, 9

truth

of intelligence, 13

try

to block the enemy's path, 11

to win battles and secure land, 12

trying

to ford a river, 9

to ford the river, 9

tumult

of war, 5

turmoil

of war, 5

turn

in which the four seasons make way for each other, 6

the indirect into the direct, 7

twelve

musical notes, 5

two

methods of operation, 5

people may be enemies, 11

type

of snake, 11

types

of terrain, 10

U

unable

to advance, 1

to benefit from natural advantages unless we use local guides, 11

to control generals' irritations, 3

to enforce your instructions, 10

to estimate abilities, 10

to make your authority felt, 10

to relieve the rear, 6

unaccountable

something to throw in the enemy's way, 6

unafraid

of danger, 1

unassailable

position, 8

unaware

that our people are not in a condition to win, 10

that the enemy cannot be defeated, 10

that the nature of the terrain makes victory impracticable, 10

under

a show of timidity, 5

dynasty, 13

your instruction, 5

underestimate

the enemy, 9

underestimating

you, 1

undergrowth

thick, 9

underlying

goals of generals, 11

understand

the advantages that accompany variation of tactics, 8

the profitable ways of waging wars, 2

understanding

generals, 11

understood

Method by, 1

underlying goals of generals, 11

undoubtable

victory, 10

unending

as the flow of rivers and streams, 5

unequal

to the enemy in every way, 3

unexpected

routes, 11

unfathomable

plans, 11

unguarded

spots, 11

unhappy

are the fates of the those who try to win battles and secure land without cultivating the spirit of enterprise, 12

united

body, 6, 7

the enemy is, 1

troops through training, 9

unity

great, 11

of purpose, 11

of the army, 11

your army must have great, 11

universe

elements, 6

unleashing

of accumulated energy, 5

unless

the position is critical, 12

there is something to gain, 12

troops are receptive, 9

we are familiar with the features of the field, 11

we use local guides, 11

you see an advantage, 12

unmarried

person, 11

unmotivated

contributors, 2

unprepared

army, 4

enemies, 3, 6

the enemy is, 1, 10

unreadiness

of the enemy, 11

use, 11

unshaken

remain, 5

unstable

positions, 5

until

death, 10

death itself comes, 11

we are acquainted with neighboring armies' plans, 11

you can execute a decisive action, 11

unversed

students in the art of varying their plans, 8

students of war in the art of varying their plans, 8

up

great heights, 11

upstream

of a river that you wish to ford, 9

us

enemy officials employed by, 13

enemy spies employed by, 13

misleading, 13

prevent the enemy from engaging, 6

suspicious, 9

the enemy offers attractive baits, 10

use

any helpful circumstances beyond the ordinary rules, 1

combined energy, 5

direct methods for engaging the enemy, 5

enemy chariots in conjunction with those of your army, 2

fire to aid attacks, 12

indirect and direct strategies, 7

Local and Inward spies, 13

local guides, 7, 11

natural advantages of terrain, 10

natural advantages of the terrain, 9

of Five Kinds of Spy, 13

of indirect and direct strategies, 7

of people, 8

of resources, 1

of terrain, 11

of torches and drums, 7

strategies dependent on the ratio of the number of troops of your army to that of the enemy, 3

strategies depending on the battleground, 11

strategies that maximize the likelihood of success, 4

strategies to manage mood, psychology, strength, circumstances, and military interactions, 7

strategy for Equitable terrain, 10

Survivng spies, 13

technique with sufficient strength, 9

the enemy to augment one's own strength, 2

the enemy to augment your strength, 2

the enemy's resources, 11

the enemy's unreadiness, 11

the Five Ways of Attacking with Fire, 12

the highest intelligence of the army for purposes of investigation, 13

the least predictable tactics, 4

the openings the enemy gives you, 11

the Seven Strategies for Attacking with Fire, 12

torches, drums, flags, and banners, 7

water to aid attacks, 12

your extremity, 2

your people to discover information for every kind of war, 13

your skills, 7

your troops, 12

used

by generals, 11

information beneficially, 13

instructions habitually, 9

reprimands, 9

strategies, depending on the battleground, 11

the Five Kinds of Spy together, 13

useful

information, 13

useless

troops, 9

troops for any practical purpose, 10

using

intelligence, 13

openings, 11

water, 12

weaknesses and strengths, 6

usual

distance, 7

rules, 11

V

vacant

area, 9

valleys

keep in the neighborhood, 9

value

of the enemy, 11

significant, 13

values

of the enemy, 11

variation

of tactics, 8

varieties

of battleground, 11

variety

of circumstances, 6

varying

plans, 8

tactics, 8

your plans, 8

vexation

may be followed by content, 12

victories

achieve beyond the reach of average people, 13

beyond the reach of average people, 13

in relation to the enemy, 6

of clever warriors, 4

will be complete, 3

victorious

army, 4

generals who know the Five Factors governing the art of war, 1

the general who listens to my suggestions and acts on them, 1

victory

advantage, 6

army is capable of creating, 11

can be decided in a day, 13

complete, 4

control, 4

create, 6

defenders cannot prevent, 11

ensure, 9

flinging away, 3

forecast, 1

gained, 6

given that it can be decided in a day, 13

in war is gained by carefully accommodating ourselves to the enemy's purposes, 11

is evolved, 6

is long in coming, 2

let your great object be, 2

let your great object be it, 2

lies in the knowledge of the Five Predictors of Victory, 3

limitless, 10

master, 13

Method, 4

methods, 4

predict, 4

predictors, 3

produce out of the enemy's tactics, 6

responsibilities, 10

result, 9

result of fighting, 10

secure, 5

that is decided in a day, 13

the nature of the terrain makes it impracticable, 10

to which military strategies lead, 1

to which thorough plans lead, 1

undoubtable, 10

we have gone only halfway toward, 10

without battling, 3

won, 3

vigilant

eyes on your defenses, 11

investigation, 9

troops, 11

vigilantly

calculate the conditions for the use of the Seven Strategies for Attacking with Fire, 12

virtues

Leadership represents, 1

vital

danger, 11

importance to the State, 1

voids

naturally deep, 9

W

waging

war, 2

wars, 2

wagons

loss, 2

of which we will need many to develop an army of many people, 2

wait

for fire to appear in the enemy's encampment, 12

for the enemy to arrive, 10

for the water to subside, 9

for the water to subside before trying to ford a river, 9

patiently, 12

waited

for an opportunity of defeating the enemy, 4

waiting

to be asked, 11

to be instructed, 11

to conquer unprepared enemies, 3

walk

in the path defined by leadership, 11

waning

periods, 6

want

benefits, 5

wants

to make us suspicious, 9

war

aspects must be studied, 11

conduct, 8

essence, 11

every kind, 13

generals, 8

haste causes mistakes, 2

in it, 2, 6

is a matter of life and death, 1

is a road to safety or ruin, 1

is governed by Five Factors, 1

methods of operation, 5

must be investigated, 1

no generals should enter into simply out of resentment, 12

operations, 2

practical, 3

practice deception and you will win, 7

preparation, 7

rapidity is the essence, 11

recognizes many varieties of battleground, 11

students, 8

students of it, 8

teaches, 8

teaches us, 8

the art of it, 8

the successful strategists only attack after the methods of victory have been determined, 4

there are no constant conditions, 6

turmoil and tumult, 5

victory is gained by carefully accommodating ourselves to the enemy's purposes, 11

waging, 2

warfare

is based on deception, 1

mountain, 9

prolonged, 2

river, 9

warlords

fighting in their own territory, 11

have penetrated into enemy territory, but to no great extent, 11

neighboring, 2

territory, 11

warrior

clever, 4

warriors

always choose rationally if moving, and have strategies if maneuvering, 10

armies, 11

attacks, 5

clever, 4, 5, 6

defeat their enemies, 4

excel in winning with ease, 4

good, 4, 5

lead armies, 11

lead their armies as if they were leading a single person, 11

leading a single a person, 11

only fight enemies they know they can defeat, 4

reveal their intentions, 11

skilled, 10

skillful, 2, 4, 5, 11

supplies, 2

timing and accuracy, 5

troops, 5

victories bring them neither reputation for wisdom nor credit for courage, 4

wars

dangers, 2

waging, 2

waste

of time, 12

water

in its natural course, 6

like it, 6

retains no constant shape, 6

shapes its course, 6

soldiers are sent to gather, 9

those who use to aid attacks are powerful, 12

using, 12

wait for it to subside, 9

wait for it to subside before trying to ford a river, 9

waxing

periods, 6

way

entice the enemy out of, 7

entice the enemy out of it, 7

generals administer territories, 3

in war, 6

in which your army is quite unequal to the enemy, 3

make by unexpected routes, 11

of retreat, 11

of the enemy, 6

of the four seasons, 6

to keep a state secure and an army intact, 12

ways

of attacking with fire, 12

of courting defeat, 10

of waging wars, 2

we

are able to attack an inferior force, 6

are acquainted with neighboring armies' plans, 7, 11

are always ready to seize an advantage when amid difficulties, 8

are familiar with the features of the field, 7, 11

are not fit to lead an army, 7

are not fit to lead an army unless we are familiar with the features of the field, 11

began far from our goal, 11

can form a single, united body, 6

can keep our army concentrated, 6

can know the situations of the enemy, acquire and use Local and Inward spies, stop Doomed spies from misleading us, and use Surviving spies on appointed occasions, 13

can only be saved from death by fighting without delay, 11

can only retire by tortuous paths, 10, 11

can plan adequately and be ready to fight, 6

can prevent the enemy from engaging us, 6

can still have the advantage, 9

cannot enter into alliances with neighboring armies, 7

cannot enter into alliances with neighboring armies until we are acquainted with their plans, 11

come now to the question of readying the army, 9

do not wish to fight, 6

face the Six Dangerous Configurations of Terrain, 9

gain Converted spies, 13

have gone only halfway toward victory, 10

have made our position unassailable, 8

have Measurement, Estimation of Quantity, Calculation, Balancing of Chances, and Victory, 4

have still gone only halfway toward victory, 10

intend to attack, 6

keep away from the Six Dangerous Configurations of Terrain, 9

know our people are in a condition to win, 10

know that the enemy can be defeated, 10

know the place and time, 6

know the place and time of battles, 6

may distinguish Six Types of Terrain, 10

may prevent the enemy from engaging us, 6

may protect ourselves from misfortune, 8

may succeed in accomplishing the essential part of our plans, 8

may take it that an army is lost without, 7

must use local guides, 7

need to attack some other place the enemy will be obliged to rescue, 6

need to throw something odd and unaccountable in the enemy's way, 6

shall be many to the enemy's few, 6

shall be unable to benefit from natural advantages unless we use local guides, 11

shall have to face numbers, 6

should get the enemy to approach the Six Dangerous Configurations of Terrain, 9

should get the enemy to ignore the Six Dangerous Configurations of Terrain, 9

should not rely solely on our size, 9

should use technique with sufficient strength and continually evaluate the enemy, 9

use local guides, 11

will reach our goal, 11

wish to fight, 6

wish to fight the enemy, 6

weak

army, 3

authority of the general, 9

determine how to make the best of, 11

everywhere, 6

generals, 10

officers, 10

strike, 6

troops, 10

weaken

the enemy's foremost divisions, 6

the enemy's left sides, 6

the enemy's rear divisions, 6

the enemy's right sides, 6

weakly

protects Constricted terrain, 10

weakness

comes from having to prepare against possible attacks, 6

masking strength, 5

simulate, 5

weaknesses

of the enemy, 6

open, 10

science, 5

using, 6

wealth

drained away, 2

loss, 2

our soldiers overburdened with, 11

weapon

loaded, 5

weapons

are dulled, 2

will grow dull, 2

weary

officers, 9

weather

is dry, 12

know, 10

wedges

drive between the enemy's front and rear, 11

well

acquainted with the configuration of the field, 8

ahead, 12

treated, 13

well-being

of your people, 11

study, 11

well-disciplined

army, 9

well-trained

troops, 11

what

average people cannot comprehend, 6

enables wise rulers and good generals to achieve victories beyond the reach of average people, 13

is strong, 6

is weak, 6

none can see, 6

to attack, 6

to defend, 6

wheels

it is insufficient to rely on burying, 11

of chariots, 11

when

amid difficulties, 8

an army is defeated and its general killed, 8

armies have penetrated into the heart of enemy territory, leaving several fortified cities and town in their rears, 11

enemy troops were scattered, 11

logs and stones are round-shaped, 5

not to fight, 3

seeking to determine the conditions existing in the field, 1

the enemy is unprepared, 1

the Five Kinds of Spy are used together, 13

the weather is dry, 12

these Five Kinds of Spy are used together, 13

to fight, 3

troops are challenged, 5

troops are established, 5

troops are in unstable positions, 5

troops have become attached to you, 9

warlords are fighting in their own territory, 11

warlords have penetrated into enemy territory, but to no great extent, 11

we can only be saved from death by fighting without delay, 11

you are at the intersections of important paths, 11

you have no place of refuge, 11

you have risky areas behind you, and narrow gaps ahead, 11

you leave your territory, and lead your army through borders of enemy territory, 11

you penetrate deeply into enemy territory, 11

you penetrate shallowly into enemy territory, 11

where

strength is deficient, 6

strength is superabundant, 6

supplies are abundant, 9

the enemy must hasten to defend, 6

there is no enemy, 6

we intend to attack, 6

you are, 12

you are not expected, 1, 6

whereby

I win, 6

the ears and eyes of the troops may be focused on one particular point, 7

while

groups of the enemy are divided, 6

groups of the enemy are split into fractions, 6

half the enemy troops are seen retreating, 9

the enemy is driving forward as if approaching, 9

the enemy is increasing their preparations, 9

we face the Six Dangerous Configurations of Terrain, 9

we keep away from the Six Dangerous Configurations of Terrain, 9

whispering

officers and troops together in small groups, 9

who

are unversed in the art of varying their plans, 8

discover useful information, 13

discovered a secret piece of information, 13

do not know the Five Factors governing the art of war will be defeated, 1

does not listen to my suggestions nor acts on them, 1

had served under dynasty, 13

have attained responsible posts, 10

have come to spy on us, 13

have learnt the use of indirect and direct strategies, 7

have returned from enemy territory with information, 13

is likely to win or lose, 1

know the Five Factors governing the art of war will be victorious, 1

know the Responsibilities for Success, 10

listens to my suggestions and acts on them, will be victorious, 1

lose battles, 1

remain ignorant of conditions, 13

try to win battles and secure land without cultivating the spirit of enterprise, 12

use fire to aid attacks are intelligent, 12

use water to aid attacks are powerful, 12

were called skillful generals of old, 11

win battles, 1

whole

against separate parts of a whole, 6

army, 5, 7, 13

separate parts of it, 6

whom

the secret was told, 13

wide

area, 9

will

your, 11

win

after, 4

battles, 1, 10, 11, 12

excellent generals are able to, 11

for the army to, 2

how to, 4

in all your battles, 3

one may know how to without being able to do it, 4

our people are in a condition to, 10

our people are not in a condition to, 10

tactics whereby I, 6

they will who have learnt the use of indirect and direct strategies, 7

who is likely to, 1

without being able to, 4

you are more likely to if you plan, 1

you will, 7

wind

ensure, 12

is blowing, 12

let your rapidity be that of it, 7

rises and lasts during the day, 12

will likely fall during the night, 12

winning

advantage, 2

succeed, 6

with ease, 4

wins

not only, 4

wisdom

reputation, 4

virtue represented by Leadership, 1

without which information cannot be beneficially used, 13

wise

general, 2

general's plans, 8

generals will use the highest intelligence of the army for purposes of investigation, 13

person, 2

rulers, 13

what they call a clever warrior is one who not only wins but excels in winning with ease, 4

wisest

brains, 6

wish

the enemy for a truce, 9

to fight, 6

to ford a river, 9

with

all possible speed, 9

an approaching enemy that is larger and organized, 11

care, 10

compensation, 13

ease, 4

enemies, 11

favorable circumstances, 1

fire, 12

humanity, 9

information, 13

maximum generosity, 13

neighboring armies, 11

neighboring armies' plans, 11

no escape, 11

people who discover useful information, 13

superstitious doubts, 11

the dangers of wars, 2

the features of the field, 11

the Five Strategic Considerations, 8

the people to whom the secret was told, 13

unity of purpose, 11

wealth, 11

your ruler, 1

withdrawal

difficult, 10

withhold

strategic information from officers and troops, 11

without

being able to win, 4

being directed, 11

being restricted, 11

benevolence and straightforwardness, 13

coveting fame, 10

cultivating the spirit of enterprise, 12

delay, 11

distress, 6

escape, 11

fearing punishment, 10

purpose, 1

regard to norms, 11

regard to usual rules, 11

subtle ingenuity, 13

underlying goals being understood, 11

waiting to be instructed, 11

wisdom, 13

witing to be asked, 11

withstand

the brunt of attacks, 5

won

victory, 3

words

do not carry far enough, 7

work

hard, 11

worry

generals exposed, 8

worst

form of generalship, 3

wrest

an advantage, 7

Y

years

opposing armies may face each other, 13

you

are able to advance, 1

are anxious to attack an invading enemy, 9

are at the intersections of important paths, 11

are capable, 1

are courageous, 5

are far from your goal, 1

are indulgent but unable to make your authority felt, kind-hearted but unable to enforce your instructions, and incapable of quelling disorder, 10

are more likely to be defeated, 1

are more likely to win if you plan, 1

are near your goal, 1

are not expected, 1, 6

are strong, 5

are superbly organized, 5

are sure to be captured, 9

attacked by both the head and tail of the Shuai Ran snake, 11

attacked by the Shuai Ran snake's head, 11

attacked by the Shuai Ran snake's tail, 11

besiege a city, 2

can achieve the highest level, 6

can avoid the enemy, 3

can create victory, 6

can engage the enemy, 3

can execute a decisive action, 11

can flee from the enemy, 3

can thoroughly understand the profitable ways of waging wars, 2

capture new territory, 7

come to a hilly area, 9

commandeer food from the enemy, 7

control key terrain before the enemy, 10

detach a swift and independent team of troops to snatch an advantage, 7

do not plan, 1

encounter any of the Four Ambush Configurations of Terrain, 9

engage in actual fighting, 2

fail to capture the enemy, 10

fight, 4

gained one victory, 6

go far into enemy territory, 11

harass the enemy, 8

have no place of refuge, 11

have no plans and underestimate the enemy, 9

have risky areas behind, 11

have risky areas behind you, and narrow gaps ahead, 11

hold out deceptive allurements, 8

intimidate the enemy, 8

it will be too late for the enemy to catch, 11

know neither the enemy nor yourself, 3

know the enemy and know yourself, 3, 10

know the weather and know the terrain, 10

know yourself but not the enemy, 3

leave your territory, and lead your army through borders of enemy territory, 11

make a move, 7

manage the enemy's weaknesses, 6

may advance and encounter no resistance, 6

may know where strength is superabundant and where it is deficient, 6

may order your troops to prepare to attack, 7

may retire and be safe from pursuit, 6

may rush forth and capture them, 10

must fight, 8

must fight even though the rulers ordered that fighting should be avoided, 10

must not fight even though the rulers ordered you to do so, 10

must strategize, 8

must use the openings the enemy gives you, 11

need not fear the result of a hundred battles, 3

never come to an end, 5

nourish your troops, and occupy positions where supplies are abundant, 9

observe changes and manage supply routes, 10

occupy Constricted terrain before the enemy, 10

penetrate deeply into enemy territory, 11

penetrate shallowly into enemy territory, 11

place armies in positions with no escape, 11

place your army in dangerous situations, and Desperate battleground, 11

plan, 1

regard your troops as your beloved children, 10

see an advantage, 12

set a fully equipped army to snatch an advantage, 7

should get far away from a river after crossing it, 9

should have lush grass near you, 9

should have your rear to the forest, 9

start an attack with fire, 12

started after the enemy, 7

stay, 12

surround the enemy, 7

the enemy controls Constricted terrain before, 10

the enemy controls key terrain before, 10

the enemy gives openings, 11

the enemy is underestimating, 1

there is movement around, 9

through the most threatening dangers, 10

to access the enemy's encampment, 9

to attack, 9

to fight, 10

treat your troops with care, 10

troops have grown attached, 9

troops will support, 11

troops will support until death, 10

when troops have become attached, 9

will at once act for the benefit of your troops and use natural advantages of the terrain, 9

will be safe, 6

will be too late to snatch an advantage, 7

will exhaust your strength, 2

will lose the general of your foremost division, 7

will win, 7

wish to ford a river, 9

your

advantage, 11

alliances, 11

allies, 8, 11

ardor damped, 2

army, 1, 3, 5, 7, 11

army will reach the goal, 7

army's chariots, 2

army's troops, 3

arrangements, 6

attacks, 6, 11

authority, 10

battles, 3

beloved children, 10

circumstances, 7

condition, 1

defense, 6

defenses, 11

deliberations, 1

demands the enemy will accede to, 11

energy, 11

extremity, 2

foremost division, 7

front, 9

funds spent, 2

general, 1

goal, 1

goals, 7

great object, 2

initial military plan is established, 11

instruction, 5

instructions, 10

methods, 6

military equipment, 2

movements are more rapid than those of the enemy, 6

people, 11, 13

plans, 7

position disadvantageous, 10

rapidity, 7

rear is safe, 9

rear to the forest, 9

right and rear, 9

ruler, 1

skills, 7

sole concern should be to get over swamps and marshes quickly without delay, 9

steadfastness, 7

strength, 2, 11

strength exhausted, 2

strength is equal to that of the enemy, 10

territory, 11

troops, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12

troops are ordered out to battle, 11

troops will be like spoilt children, 10

troops with care, 10

victory defenders cannot prevent, 11

victory will be limitless, 10

victory will be undoubtable, 10

way, 11

weapons are dulled, 2

whole army may withstand the brunt of attacks and remain unshaken, 5

will, 11

yourself

accommodate to the enemy until you can execute a decisive action, 11

know, 3, 10

Part 14 of 14


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Origin Story of Sun Tzu Art of War

Sun Tzu's Art of War is the compiled teachings of military strategist, Sun Tzu. "Tzu" means "Master," which is the title used by students to refer to their teacher. "Sun" is a family name. In Chinese, the family's name is presented before the individual's name or title; so, in English, his students would have referred to him as Master Sun. The direct translation of the original version of Sun Tzu's Art of War is Master Sun's Military Methods. It is possible that Master Sun's students compiled his teachings into a treatise, and called it Master Sun's Military Methods, which later became popular in English under the title the Art of War.

Who was Sun Tzu? He appears to have been a military theorist and advisor during the final years of the Spring and Autumn Period of the Zhou (pronounce "Joe") Dynasty (c. 771–476 B.C.E.). So, Sun Tzu could be someone named Sun Wu (someone with the family name of Sun, from the territory of Wu), but the experience and accomplishments he would have needed to write the Art of War are not recorded.

Sun Bin, seemingly Sun Tzu's grandson, wrote a different military treatise, known as Sun Bin's Art of War, which appears to expand on Sun Tzu's Art of War. Sun Bin gets into more details specific to situations at his time period, whereas Sun Tzu derives more universal principles. Sun Bin would have been able to create his own philosophy or continue Sun Tzu's philosophy, because it is recorded that he was crippled for a large part of his life, so he had sufficient time to write.

Sun Tzu probably acted as a military theorist and strategic consultant who tested strategies throughout years of war. He was likely not a general because, although he is often mentioned in military philosophy, he is not mentioned in the main military record of ancient China. After strategizing his way through the calamities of war, emerging victorious, and securing his people's future, he lived simply and wrote the Art of War based on his experimentation with real war. After his death, it appears that others expanded on his philosophy, because the Art of War references devices that had not been invented by his time.

If Sun Wu was a real military theorist, Sun Tzu's Art of War likely started with him, and his relatives and associates would have built on his philosophy; however, Sun Bin may have created the character of "Sun Wu" to embody the quintessential leader.